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Features of Urban Food and Nutrition Security and Considerations for Successful Urban Programming

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  • Marie T. Ruel

    ()
    (International Food Policy Research Institute)

  • James L. Garrett

Abstract

In this paper we discuss the wide disparities that exist in childhood malnutrition, food insecurity and livelihoods within urban areas which, when combined with the mobility of urban residents, add to the complexity of designing, targeting and implementing urban programmes. Livelihood security in urban areas is dependent on cash income, especially for food expenditures, and hence employment. For women, employment brings about the need for support with childcare; we analyse a programme that provides the double benefit of delivering affordable and reliable childcare for extended hours, and allowing women to secure a more formal employment and obtaining employment benefits. Other factors that need to be considered in shaping urban programmes include land and housing security, the crime and violence situation, the availability and nature of social networks, and governance issues. Finally, we discuss potential strategic responses to the challenges of urban programming.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations in its journal The Electronic Journal of Agricultural and Development Economics.

Volume (Year): 1 (2004)
Issue (Month): 2 ()
Pages: 242-271

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Handle: RePEc:fao:tejade:v:1:y:2004:i:2:p:242-271

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Keywords: urban food security; food expenditures; employment; childcare; urban programming;

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References

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  1. Engle, Patrice L. & Menon, Purnima & Haddad, Lawrence, 1999. "Care and Nutrition: Concepts and Measurement," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 27(8), pages 1309-1337, August.
  2. Pradhan, M.P. & Soest, A.H.O. van, 1997. "Household labor supply in urban areas of Bolivia," Open Access publications from Tilburg University urn:nbn:nl:ui:12-74119, Tilburg University.
  3. Garrett, James L. & Ruel, Marie T., 1999. "Food and Nutrition in an Urbanizing World," Choices, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 14(4).
  4. Dave D. Weatherspoon & Thomas Reardon, 2003. "The Rise of Supermarkets in Africa: Implications for Agrifood Systems and the Rural Poor," Development Policy Review, Overseas Development Institute, vol. 21, pages 333-355, 05.
  5. Ruel, Marie T. & Garrett, James L. & Morris, Saul Sutkover & Maxwell, Daniel G. & Oshaug, Arne & Engle, Patrice L. & Menon, Purnima & Slack, Alison T. & Haddad, Lawrence James, 1998. "Urban challenges to food and nutrition security," FCND discussion papers 51, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  6. Menon, Purnima & Ruel, Marie T. & Morris, Saul Sutkover, 2000. "Socio-economic differentials in child stunting are consistently larger in urban than rural areas," FCND briefs 97, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  7. Garrett, James L. & Ruel, Marie T., 1999. "Are determinants of rural and urban food security and nutritional status different?," FCND discussion papers 65, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  8. Pius Simon, 1998. "Informal Responses to Crises of Urban Employment: An Investigation into the Structure and Relevance of Small-scale Informal Retailing in Kaduna, Nigeria," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 32(6), pages 547-557.
  9. Portes, Alejandro & Blitzer, Silvia & Curtis, John, 1986. "The urban informal sector in Uruguay: Its internal structure, characteristics, and effects," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 14(6), pages 727-741, June.
  10. Garrett, James, 2004. "Living life," FCND discussion papers 171, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  11. Ruel, Marie T. & Haddad, Lawrence & Garrett, James L., 1999. "Some Urban Facts of Life: Implications for Research and Policy," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 27(11), pages 1917-1938, November.
  12. Garrett, James L., ed. & Ruel, Marie T., ed., 2000. "Achieving urban food and nutrition security in the developing world:," 2020 vision focus 3, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  13. Glick, Peter & Sahn, David E, 1998. "Maternal Labour Supply and Child Nutrition in West Africa," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 60(3), pages 325-55, August.
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Cited by:
  1. Matuschke, Ira, 2009. "Rapid Urbanization and Food Security: Using Food Density Maps to Identify Future Food Security Hotspots," 2009 Conference, August 16-22, 2009, Beijing, China 51643, International Association of Agricultural Economists.

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