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Congestion tolling in the bottleneck model with heterogeneous values of time

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  • van den Berg, Vincent
  • Verhoef, Erik T.

Abstract

When analysing the effects of transport policies it is important to adequately control for heterogeneity: previous studies note that ignoring heterogeneity biases the estimated welfare effects of tolling. This paper examines the effects of tolling, in a bottleneck model, with a continuously distributed value of time. With homogeneous users, first-best public tolling has no effect on prices. With heterogeneity it does: low values of time lose, and high values of time gain. The average congestion externality decreases with the heterogeneity in the value of time. Consequently, the welfare gain of first-best tolling also decreases. The more heterogeneous the value of time is, the lower the relative efficiency of a public pay-lane. This finding contrasts with the previous literature. Earlier studies, using static flow congestion, conclude that the relative efficiency increases with this type of heterogeneity. With more heterogeneity in the value of time, the relative efficiency of a private pay-lane is also lower, while that of a public time-invariant toll is higher. Our results suggest that the welfare gains of different tolling schemes are affected differently by heterogeneity. Further, the impact of heterogeneity on the effects of a policy also depends on the type of congestion considered.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Transportation Research Part B: Methodological.

Volume (Year): 45 (2011)
Issue (Month): 1 (January)
Pages: 60-78

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Handle: RePEc:eee:transb:v:45:y:2011:i:1:p:60-78

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Keywords: Congestion pricing Bottleneck model Heterogeneity Value of time Second-best pricing;

References

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  1. Arnott, Richard & de Palma, Andre & Lindsey, Robin, 1990. "Economics of a bottleneck," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 27(1), pages 111-130, January.
  2. AndrÊ de Palma & Robin Lindsey, 2000. "Private toll roads: Competition under various ownership regimes," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer, vol. 34(1), pages 13-35.
  3. Small, Kenneth A. & Yan, Jia, 2001. "The Value of "Value Pricing" of Roads: Second-Best Pricing and Product Differentiation," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 49(2), pages 310-336, March.
  4. Odeck, James & Bråthen, Svein, 1997. "On public attitudes toward implementation of toll roads--the case of Oslo toll ring," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 4(2), pages 73-83, April.
  5. Huang, Hai-Jun, 2000. "Fares and tolls in a competitive system with transit and highway: the case with two groups of commuters," Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, Elsevier, vol. 36(4), pages 267-284, December.
  6. Brownstone, David & Ghosh, Arindam & Golob, Thomas F. & Kazimi, Camilla & Van Amelsfort, Dirk, 2003. "Drivers' willingness-to-pay to reduce travel time: evidence from the San Diego I-15 congestion pricing project," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 37(4), pages 373-387, May.
  7. Braid, Ralph M., 1996. "Peak-Load Pricing of a Transportation Route with an Unpriced Substitute," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 40(2), pages 179-197, September.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Yang, Hai & Liu, Wei & Wang, Xiaolei & Zhang, Xiaoning, 2013. "On the morning commute problem with bottleneck congestion and parking space constraints," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 58(C), pages 106-118.
  2. Meng, Qiang & Liu, Zhiyuan & Wang, Shuaian, 2012. "Optimal distance tolls under congestion pricing and continuously distributed value of time," Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, Elsevier, vol. 48(5), pages 937-957.
  3. van den Berg, Vincent A.C., 2014. "Coarse tolling with heterogeneous preferences," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 64(C), pages 1-23.
  4. van den Berg, Vincent & Verhoef, Erik T., 2011. "Winning or losing from dynamic bottleneck congestion pricing?," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 95(7), pages 983-992.
  5. Vincent A.C. van den Berg, 2013. "Coarse Tolling with Heterogeneous Preferences," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 13-120/VIII, Tinbergen Institute.
  6. Vincent van den Berg & Erik T. Verhoef, 2011. "Congesting Pricing in a Road and Rail Network with Heterogeneous Values of Time and Schedule Delay," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 11-059/3, Tinbergen Institute, revised 24 May 2012.
  7. Tian, Li-Jun & Yang, Hai & Huang, Hai-Jun, 2013. "Tradable credit schemes for managing bottleneck congestion and modal split with heterogeneous users," Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, Elsevier, vol. 54(C), pages 1-13.
  8. Yao, Tao & Wei, Mike Mingcheng & Zhang, Bo & Friesz, Terry, 2012. "Congestion derivatives for a traffic bottleneck with heterogeneous commuters," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 46(10), pages 1454-1473.
  9. Vincent van den Berg & Erik T. Verhoef, 2011. "Congesting Pricing in a Road and Rail Network with Heterogeneous Values of Time and Schedule Delay," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 11-059/3, Tinbergen Institute, revised 24 May 2012.

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