Action bias among elite soccer goalkeepers: The case of penalty kicks
AbstractIn soccer penalty kicks, goalkeepers choose their action before they can clearly observe the kick direction. An analysis of 286 penalty kicks in top leagues and championships worldwide shows that given the probability distribution of kick direction, the optimal strategy for goalkeepers is to stay in the goal's center. Goalkeepers, however, almost always jump right or left. We propose the following explanation for this behavior: because the norm is to jump, norm theory (Kahneman and Miller, 1986) implies that a goal scored yields worse feelings for the goalkeeper following inaction (staying in the center) than following action (jumping), leading to a bias for action. The omission bias, a bias in favor of inaction, is reversed here because the norm here is reversed - to act rather than to choose inaction. The claim that jumping is the norm is supported by a second study, a survey conducted with 32 top professional goalkeepers. The seemingly biased decision making is particularly striking since the goalkeepers have huge incentives to make correct decisions, and it is a decision they encounter frequently. Finally, we discuss several implications of the action/omission bias for economics and management.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
Bibliographic InfoArticle provided by Elsevier in its journal Journal of Economic Psychology.
Volume (Year): 28 (2007)
Issue (Month): 5 (October)
Contact details of provider:
Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/joep
Other versions of this item:
- Bar-Eli, Michael & Azar, Ofer H. & Ritov, Ilana & Keidar-Levin, Yael & Schein, Galit, 2005. "Action bias among elite soccer goalkeepers: The case of penalty kicks," MPRA Paper 4477, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Z13 - Other Special Topics - - Cultural Economics - - - Economic Sociology; Economic Anthropology; Social and Economic Stratification
- D81 - Microeconomics - - Information, Knowledge, and Uncertainty - - - Criteria for Decision-Making under Risk and Uncertainty
- D01 - Microeconomics - - General - - - Microeconomic Behavior: Underlying Principles
- C93 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Design of Experiments - - - Field Experiments
- A12 - General Economics and Teaching - - General Economics - - - Relation of Economics to Other Disciplines
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Pieters, Rik & Zeelenberg, Marcel, 2005. "On bad decisions and deciding badly: When intention-behavior inconsistency is regrettable," Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Elsevier, vol. 97(1), pages 18-30, May.
- Ritov, Ilana & Baron, Jonathan, 1995. "Outcome Knowledge, Regret, and Omission Bias," Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Elsevier, vol. 64(2), pages 119-127, November.
- Ignacio Palacios-Huerta, 2003.
"Professionals Play Minimax,"
Review of Economic Studies,
Wiley Blackwell, vol. 70(2), pages 395-415, 04.
- Zeelenberg, M. & Dijk, E. van & Bos, K. van den & Pieters, R., 2002. "The Inaction Effect in the Psychology of Regret," Open Access publications from Tilburg University urn:nbn:nl:ui:12-89429, Tilburg University.
- Vulkan, Nir, 2000. " An Economist's Perspective on Probability Matching," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 14(1), pages 101-18, February.
- Zeelenberg, Marcel & Pieters, Rik, 2004. "Consequences of regret aversion in real life: The case of the Dutch postcode lottery," Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Elsevier, vol. 93(2), pages 155-168, March.
- Zeelenberg, M. & Pieters, R., 2004. "Consequences of regret aversion in real life: The case of the Dutch postcode lottery," Open Access publications from Tilburg University urn:nbn:nl:ui:12-126233, Tilburg University.
- P.-A. Chiappori, 2002. "Testing Mixed-Strategy Equilibria When Players Are Heterogeneous: The Case of Penalty Kicks in Soccer," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 92(4), pages 1138-1151, September.
- Ritov, Ilana & Baron, Jonathan, 1992. " Status-Quo and Omission Biases," Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, Springer, vol. 5(1), pages 49-61, February.
- Patt, Anthony & Zeckhauser, Richard, 2000. " Action Bias and Environmental Decisions," Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, Springer, vol. 21(1), pages 45-72, July.
Blog mentionsAs found by EconAcademics.org, the blog aggregator for Economics research:
- Action bias and the political economy of penalty kicks
by ? in Worthwhile Canadian Initiative on 2014-05-22 12:10:00
- repec:wyi:wpaper:002048 is not listed on IDEAS
- Feri, Francesco & Innocenti, Alessandro & Pin, Paolo, 2013.
"Is there psychological pressure in competitive environments?,"
Journal of Economic Psychology,
Elsevier, vol. 39(C), pages 249-256.
- Francesco Feri & Alessandro Innocenti & Paolo Pin, 2012. "Is There Psychological Pressure in Competitive Environments?," Labsi Experimental Economics Laboratory University of Siena 044, University of Siena.
- Sandri, Serena & Schade, Christian & Mußhoff, Oliver & Odening, Martin, 2010.
"Holding on for too long? An experimental study on inertia in entrepreneurs' and non-entrepreneurs' disinvestment choices,"
Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization,
Elsevier, vol. 76(1), pages 30-44, October.
- Sandri, Serena & Schade, Christian & Musshoff, Oliver & Odening, Martin, 2010. "Holding on for too long? An experimental study on inertia in entrepreneurs’ and non-entrepreneurs’ disinvestment choices," Structural Change in Agriculture/Strukturwandel im Agrarsektor (SiAg) Working Papers 59518, Humboldt University Berlin, Department of Agricultural Economics.
- Ert, Eyal & Erev, Ido, 2008. "The rejection of attractive gambles, loss aversion, and the lemon avoidance heuristic," Journal of Economic Psychology, Elsevier, vol. 29(5), pages 715-723, November.
- Azar, Ofer H. & Bar-Eli, Michael, 2009.
"Do soccer players play the mixed-strategy Nash equilibrium?,"
20964, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Ofer Azar & Michael Bar-Eli, 2011. "Do soccer players play the mixed-strategy Nash equilibrium?," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 43(25), pages 3591-3601.
- Germán Coloma, 2012. "The penalty-kick game under incomplete information," CEMA Working Papers: Serie Documentos de Trabajo. 487, Universidad del CEMA.
- Morgulev, Elia & Azar, Ofer H. & Lidor, Ronnie & Sabag, Eran & Bar-Eli, Michael, 2014. "Deception and decision making in professional basketball: Is it beneficial to flop?," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 102(C), pages 108-118.
- Shachat, Jason & Swarthout, J. Todd & Wei, Lijia, 2012.
"A hidden Markov model for the detection of pure and mixed strategy play in games,"
39896, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Jason Shachat & J. Todd Swarthout & Lijia Wei, 2012. "A hidden Markov model for the detection of pure and mixed strategy play in games," Experimental Economics Center Working Paper Series 2012-11, Experimental Economics Center, Andrew Young School of Policy Studies, Georgia State University.
- Azar, Ofer H., 2014. "The default heuristic in strategic decision making: When is it optimal to choose the default without investing in information search?," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 67(8), pages 1744-1748.
- Eyal Peer & Lidor Solomon, 2012. "Professionally biased: Misestimations of driving speed, journey time and time-savings among taxi and car drivers," Judgment and Decision Making, Society for Judgment and Decision Making, vol. 7(2), pages 165-172, March.
- Gernot Wagner & Richard Zeckhauser, 2012. "Climate policy: hard problem, soft thinking," Climatic Change, Springer, vol. 110(3), pages 507-521, February.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Zhang, Lei).
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.