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The outsourcing of IT-enabled business processes: A conceptual model of the location decision

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  • Graf, Michael
  • Mudambi, Susan M.
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    Abstract

    As business process outsourcing (BPO) becomes more widespread, customers, the general public and politicians have increasingly questioned and criticized firms' outsourcing decisions to foreign locations. In this paper, we develop and apply theory to improve understanding of the outsourcing location decision for IT-enabled business processes. We do this by adding a human capital dimension and moderating factors to the Dunning [Dunning, J.H., 1988. Explaining International Production. Unwin Hyman, London.] framework of infrastructure, country risk and government policy. The inclusion of a human capital dimension is justified due to the nature of IT-enabled business processes, with their inherent tradeoffs between high tech and high touch. The model also incorporates firm-specific moderating factors, such as the firm's outsourcing objectives and experience, and situation-specific moderators including the nature of the business process and customer expectations. The model provides a way for firms and researchers to take a more systematic and comprehensive approach to outsourcing location decisions. We conclude with a discussion of the managerial and research implications.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Journal of International Management.

    Volume (Year): 11 (2005)
    Issue (Month): 2 (June)
    Pages: 253-268

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    Handle: RePEc:eee:intman:v:11:y:2005:i:2:p:253-268

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    Related research

    Keywords: Outsourcing BPO Location attractiveness Information technology;

    References

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    Cited by:
    1. Jensen, Peter D. Ørberg & Larsen, Marcus M. & Pedersen, Torben, 2013. "The organizational design of offshoring: Taking stock and moving forward," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 19(4), pages 315-323.
    2. Reuter, Ute & Burr, Wolfgang, 2011. "International market assessment: Site selection in service firms," Research Papers on Innovation, Services and Technology 2/2011, University of Stuttgart, Institute of Business Administration, Department I - Institute of Research & Development and Innovation Management.
    3. Hätönen, Jussi & Eriksson, Taina, 2009. "30+Â years of research and practice of outsourcing - Exploring the past and anticipating the future," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 15(2), pages 142-155, June.
    4. Consoli,Davide & Elche,Dioni, 2014. "An analysis of the knowledge base of Scientific Research & Development Business Services," INGENIO (CSIC-UPV) Working Paper Series 201401, INGENIO (CSIC-UPV).
    5. Mukherjee, Debmalya & Gaur, Ajai S. & Datta, Avimanyu, 2013. "Creating value through offshore outsourcing: An integrative framework," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 19(4), pages 377-389.
    6. Schmeisser, Bjoern, 2013. "A Systematic Review of Literature on Offshoring of Value Chain Activities," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 19(4), pages 390-406.
    7. Nils Urbach & Tobias Würz, 2012. "How to Steer the IT Outsourcing Provider," Business & Information Systems Engineering, Springer, vol. 4(5), pages 247-259, October.
    8. Jensen, Peter D. Ørberg, 2012. "A passage to India: A dual case study of activities, processes and resources in offshore outsourcing of advanced services," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 47(2), pages 311-326.
    9. Bunyaratavej, Kraiwinee & Hahn, Eugene D. & Doh, Jonathan P., 2008. "Multinational investment and host country development: Location efficiencies for services offshoring," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 43(2), pages 227-242, March.
    10. Jantunen, Ari & Nummela, Niina & Puumalainen, Kaisu & Saarenketo, Sami, 2008. "Strategic orientations of born globals--Do they really matter?," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 43(2), pages 158-170, March.
    11. Gooris, Julien & Peeters, Carine, 2014. "Home–Host Country Distance in Offshore Governance Choices," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 20(1), pages 73-86.
    12. Kedia, Ben L. & Lahiri, Somnath, 2007. "International outsourcing of services: A partnership model," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 13(1), pages 22-37, March.
    13. Bunyaratavej, Kraiwinee & Hahn, Eugene D. & Doh, Jonathan P., 2007. "International offshoring of services: A parity study," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 13(1), pages 7-21, March.
    14. Raman, Revti & Chadee, Doren & Roxas, Banjo & Michailova, Snejina, 2013. "Effects of Partnership Quality, Talent Management, and Global Mindset on Performance of Offshore IT Service Providers in India," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 19(4), pages 333-346.
    15. Martinez-Noya, Andrea & Garcia-Canal, Esteban & Guillen, Mauro F., 2012. "International R&D service outsourcing by technology-intensive firms: Whether and where?," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 18(1), pages 18-37.
    16. Peter Maskell & Torben Pedersen & Bent Petersen & Jens Dick-Nielsen, 2005. "Learning Paths to Offshore Outsourcing - From Cost Reduction to Knowledge Seeking," DRUID Working Papers 05-17, DRUID, Copenhagen Business School, Department of Industrial Economics and Strategy/Aalborg University, Department of Business Studies.
    17. Hätönen, Jussi, 2009. "Making the locational choice: A case approach to the development of a theory of offshore outsourcing and internationalization," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 15(1), pages 61-76, March.
    18. Carine Peeters, 2009. "Exploring heterogeneity in preferences for offshore functions, governance modes and locations," Working Papers CEB 09-029.RS, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
    19. Julien Gooris & Carine Peeters, 2012. "Home-Host Country Distance and Governance Choices in Service Offshoring," Working Papers ECARES ECARES 2012-007, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
    20. Swan, K. Scott & Allred, Brent B., 2009. "Does 'the China Option' influence subsidiary technology sourcing strategy?," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 15(2), pages 169-180, June.
    21. Lahiri, Somnath & Kedia, Ben L., 2009. "The effects of internal resources and partnership quality on firm performance: An examination of Indian BPO providers," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 15(2), pages 209-224, June.
    22. Javalgi, Rajshekhar (Raj) G. & Dixit, Ashutosh & Scherer, Robert F., 2009. "Outsourcing to emerging markets: Theoretical perspectives and policy implications," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 15(2), pages 156-168, June.
    23. Kedia, Ben L. & Mukherjee, Debmalya, 2009. "Understanding offshoring: A research framework based on disintegration, location and externalization advantages," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 44(3), pages 250-261, July.

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