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Carve-outs under airline antitrust immunity

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  • Brueckner, Jan K.
  • Proost, Stef

Abstract

This paper offers the first formal economic analysis of carve-outs under airline antitrust immunity. Carve-outs are designed to limit the potential anticompetitive effects of cooperation by alliance partners in hub-to-hub markets, where they provide overlapping nonstop service. While the paper shows that carve-outs are beneficial when the alliance does not involve full integration of the partners' operations on the hub-to-hub route, its key point is that a carve-out may be harmful when imposed on a joint-venture alliance. A JV alliance involves full exploitation of economies of traffic density on the hub-to-hub route, and a carve-out prevents the realization of these benefits. While a carve-out may limit anticompetitive incentives on the hub-to-hub route, welfare may be reduced if the resulting gains are overshadowed by the efficiency loss generated by the carve-out.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Elsevier in its journal International Journal of Industrial Organization.

Volume (Year): 28 (2010)
Issue (Month): 6 (November)
Pages: 657-668

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Handle: RePEc:eee:indorg:v:28:y:2010:i:6:p:657-668

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Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/inca/505551

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Keywords: Carve-out Antitrust immunity Alliances;

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References

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  1. DE BORGER, Bruno & PROOST, Stef & VAN DENDER, Kurt, 2007. "Private port pricing and public investment in port and hinterland capacity," Working Papers 2007019, University of Antwerp, Faculty of Applied Economics.
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  4. Volodymyr Bilotkach, 2007. "Airline Partnerships and Schedule Coordination," Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, London School of Economics and University of Bath, vol. 41(3), pages 413-425, September.
  5. Barla, Philippe & Constantatos, Christos, 2005. "On the Choice between Strategic Alliance and Merger in the Airline Sector: the Role of Strategic Effects," Cahiers de recherche 0502, Université Laval - Département d'économique.
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  14. Chen, Yongmin & Gayle, Philip G., 2007. "Vertical contracting between airlines: An equilibrium analysis of codeshare alliances," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 25(5), pages 1046-1060, October.
  15. Brueckner, Jan K & Whalen, W Tom, 2000. "The Price Effects of International Airline Alliances," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 43(2), pages 503-45, October.
  16. Orit Hassin & Oz Shy, 2004. "Code-sharing Agreements and Interconnections in Markets for International Flights," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 12(3), pages 337-352, 08.
  17. Philip G. Gayle, 2008. "An Empirical Analysis of the Competitive Effects of the Delta/Continental/Northwest Code-Share Alliance," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 51(4), pages 743-766, November.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Bilotkach, Volodymyr & Fageda, Xavier, 1975- & Flores-Fillol, Ricardo, 2012. "Airline Consolidation and the Distribution of Traffic between Primary and Secondary Hubs," Working Papers 2072/211632, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Department of Economics.
  2. Bilotkach, Volodymyr & Hüschelrath, Kai, 2010. "Airline alliances, antitrust immunity and market foreclosure," ZEW Discussion Papers 10-083, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  3. Jan K. Brueckner & Pierre M. Picard, 2011. "Airline Alliances, Carve-Outs and Collusion," CESifo Working Paper Series 3593, CESifo Group Munich.
  4. Mantin, Benny, 2012. "Airport complementarity: Private vs. government ownership and welfare gravitation," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 46(3), pages 381-388.
  5. Jolian McHardy & Michael Reynolds & Stephen Trotter, 2009. "On the Problem of Network Monopoly," Working Papers 2009003, The University of Sheffield, Department of Economics, revised Mar 2009.
  6. Stephen Martin, 2012. "Market Structure and Market Performance," Review of Industrial Organization, Springer, vol. 40(2), pages 87-108, March.
  7. Hüschelrath, Kai & Müller, Kathrin, 2012. "Market power, efficiencies, and entry: Evidence from an airline merger," ZEW Discussion Papers 12-070, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  8. Benoot, W. & Brueckner, J.K. & Proost, S., 2013. "Intercontinental-airport regulation," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 52(C), pages 56-72.

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