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Distance decreases with differentiation: Strategic agglomeration by retailers

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Author Info

  • Picone, Gabriel A.
  • Ridley, David B.
  • Zandbergen, Paul A.

Abstract

Theory predicts intense price competition results when firms cluster with rivals. Yet, strong evidence of clustering is found in previous empirical research. Researchers typically measure clustering by comparing observed location patterns to random assignment. The random assignment benchmark does not, however, account for zoning and geography and therefore might overstate the extent of strategic agglomeration. As evidence, we find that public elementary schools cluster more than random, not because of agglomeration economies, but due to demand density and limited location options. We argue that a better measurement of strategic agglomeration is to compare across product markets with similar zoning and other location restrictions but different benefits from agglomeration. We use L-function analysis of five product markets in five cities. We find that retailers with greater ability to differentiate their products are more likely to strategically cluster.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Elsevier in its journal International Journal of Industrial Organization.

Volume (Year): 27 (2009)
Issue (Month): 3 (May)
Pages: 463-473

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Handle: RePEc:eee:indorg:v:27:y:2009:i:3:p:463-473

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Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/inca/505551

Related research

Keywords: Agglomeration Location Differentiation Retail Alcohol;

References

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  1. Hideo Konishi, 1999. "Concentration of Competing Retail Stores," Boston College Working Papers in Economics 447, Boston College Department of Economics.
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  10. Borenstein, Severin & Netz, Janet, 1999. "Why do all the flights leave at 8 am?: Competition and departure-time differentiation in airline markets," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 17(5), pages 611-640, July.
  11. Dudey, Marc, 1990. "Competition by Choice: The Effect of Consumer Search on Firm Location Decisions," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 80(5), pages 1092-1104, December.
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  15. Ellison, G. & Glaeser, E.L., 1994. "Geographic Concentration in U.S. Manufacturing Industries: A Dartboard Approach," Working papers 94-27, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Department of Economics.
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  23. Kenneth S. Corts, 2001. "The Strategic Effects of Vertical Market Structure: Common Agency and Divisionalization in the US Motion Picture Industry," Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 10(4), pages 509-528, December.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Buechel, Berno & Klein, Jan, 2014. "Do Consumers' Preferences Really Matter? - A Note on Spatial Competition with Restricted Strategies," MPRA Paper 55288, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  2. Pim Heijnen & Marco A. Haan & Adriaan R. Soetevent, 2012. "Screening for Collusion: A Spatial Statistics Approach," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 12-058/1, Tinbergen Institute.
  3. Yi Deng & Gabriel Picone, 2013. "Strategic Clustering and Competition by Alcohol Retailers: An Emperical Anlysis of Entry and Location Decisions," Working Papers 1013, University of South Florida, Department of Economics.

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