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Liquidity creation without a central bank: Clearing house loan certificates in the banking panic of 1907

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  • Tallman, Ellis W.
  • Moen, Jon R.

Abstract

We employ a new data set comprised of disaggregate figures on clearing house loan certificate issues in New York City to document how the dominant national banks were crucial providers of temporary liquidity during the Panic of 1907. Clearing house loan certificates were extensions of credit by the New York Clearing House to its members. These certificates were transferable to other clearing house members as a form of final payment for settlement of interbank payments. The certificate issues allowed borrowing banks to maintain (and increase) loans, fulfill cash payment upon depositor withdrawal demands, and enabled gold imports, which took two to three weeks to arrive. The large, New York City national banks acted as private liquidity providers by requesting (and the New York Clearing House issuing) a volume of clearing house loan certificates in excess of their own immediate liquidity needs, in accord with their role as central reserve city banks in the national banking system.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Journal of Financial Stability.

Volume (Year): 8 (2012)
Issue (Month): 4 ()
Pages: 277-291

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Handle: RePEc:eee:finsta:v:8:y:2012:i:4:p:277-291

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Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/jfstabil

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Keywords: Financial distress; Lender of last resort; Liquidity crisis; Banking panic; Clearing house loan certificates;

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References

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  1. Frederick R. Macaulay, 1938. "Some Theoretical Problems Suggested by the Movements of Interest Rates, Bond Yields and Stock Prices in the United States since 1856," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number maca38-1, October.
  2. Moen, Jon & Tallman, Ellis W., 1992. "The Bank Panic of 1907: The Role of Trust Companies," The Journal of Economic History, Cambridge University Press, vol. 52(03), pages 611-630, September.
  3. Gorton, Gary & Mullineaux, Donald J, 1987. "The Joint Production of Confidence: Endogenous Regulation and Nineteenth Century Commercial-Bank Clearinghouses," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 19(4), pages 457-68, November.
  4. Christina Romer & Jeffrey A. Miron, 1989. "A New Monthly Index of Industrial Production, 1884-1940," NBER Working Papers 3172, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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  6. Ellis W. Tallman & Jon R. Moen, 1993. "Liquidity shocks and financial crises during the national banking era," Working Paper 93-10, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta.
  7. John A. James & David F. Weiman, 2010. "From Drafts to Checks: The Evolution of Correspondent Banking Networks and the Formation of the Modern U.S. Payments System, 1850-1914," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 42(2-3), pages 237-265, 03.
  8. Gary Gorton & Lixin Huang, 2002. "Banking Panics and the Origin of Central Banking," NBER Working Papers 9137, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  9. Ellis W. Tallman & Jon R. Moen, 1995. "Private sector responses to the Panic of 1907: a comparison of New York and Chicago," Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta, issue Mar, pages 1-9.
  10. Officer, Lawrence H, 1986. "The Efficiency of the Dollar-Sterling Gold Standard, 1890-1908," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 94(5), pages 1038-73, October.
  11. Timberlake, Richard H, Jr, 1984. "The Central Banking Role of Clearinghouse Associations," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 16(1), pages 1-15, February.
  12. Donaldson, R. Glen, 1992. "Costly liquidation, interbank trade, bank runs and panics," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 2(1), pages 59-82, March.
  13. Ellis W. Tallman, 2012. "The Panic of 1907," Working Paper 1228, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland.
  14. Gorton, Gary, 1985. "Clearinghouses and the Origin of Central Banking in the United States," The Journal of Economic History, Cambridge University Press, vol. 45(02), pages 277-283, June.
  15. Wicker,Elmus, 2000. "Banking Panics of the Gilded Age," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521770231.
  16. Gorton, Gary & Huang, Lixin, 2006. "Bank panics and the endogeneity of central banking," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 53(7), pages 1613-1629, October.
  17. James J. McAndrews & Simon M. Potter, 2002. "Liquidity effects of the events of September 11, 2001," Economic Policy Review, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, issue Nov, pages 59-79.
  18. Jon R. Moen & Ellis W. Tallman, 1999. "Why didn't the United States establish a central bank until after the panic of 1907?," Working Paper 99-16, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta.
  19. Clark, Truman A, 1984. "Violations of the Gold Points, 1890-1908," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 92(5), pages 791-823, October.
  20. Odell, Kerry A. & Weidenmier, Marc D., 2004. "Real Shock, Monetary Aftershock: The 1906 San Francisco Earthquake and the Panic of 1907," The Journal of Economic History, Cambridge University Press, vol. 64(04), pages 1002-1027, December.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Ellis W. Tallman & Elmus R. Wicker, 2010. "Banking and financial crises in United States history: what guidance can history offer policymakers?," Working Paper 1009, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland.
  2. Acharya, Viral V & Gromb, Denis & Yorulmazer, Tanju, 2008. "Imperfect Competition in the Inter-Bank Market for Liquidity as a Rationale for Central Banking," CEPR Discussion Papers 6984, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  3. Norman, Ben & Shaw, Rachel & Speight, George, 2011. "The history of interbank settlement arrangements: exploring central banks’ role in the payment system," Bank of England working papers 412, Bank of England.
  4. Ellis W. Tallman, 2012. "The Panic of 1907," Working Paper 1228, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland.
  5. Mark A. Carlson, 2013. "Lessons from the historical use of reserve requirements in the United States to promote bank liquidity," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2013-11, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  6. Gary B. Gorton, 2012. "Some Reflections on the Recent Financial Crisis," NBER Working Papers 18397, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  7. Jon R. Moen & Ellis W. Tallman, 2013. "Close but not a central bank: The New York Clearing House and issues of clearing house loan certificates," Working Paper 1308, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland.

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