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Explaining the disparity in placement instability among African-American and white children in child welfare: A Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition

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  • Foster, E. Michael
  • Hillemeier, Marianne M.
  • Bai, Yu
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    Abstract

    African-American children in the child welfare system are at disproportionate risk of adverse experiences including placement instability. This article compares placement instability among African-American and white children in the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being and identifies mechanisms underlying racial disparities using a Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition. The type of initial out-of-home placements contributes significantly to the racial gap in placement instability. However a large amount of racial disparity remains unexplained. Additional factors, not captured by these analyses, apparently explain African-American's increased risk of placement instability. Predictors of placement instability differ between racial groups. Among African-Americans, older age, initial placement in a setting other than kinship care, and having a higher externalizing CBCL score at baseline are associated with greater instability. Among white children, however, only initial placement in a foster care setting predicted placement instability.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Children and Youth Services Review.

    Volume (Year): 33 (2011)
    Issue (Month): 1 (January)
    Pages: 118-125

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    Handle: RePEc:eee:cysrev:v:33:y:2011:i:1:p:118-125

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    Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/childyouth

    Related research

    Keywords: Racial differences Methodology Regression;

    References

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    1. James, Sigrid & Landsverk, John & Slymen, Donald J., 2004. "Placement movement in out-of-home care: patterns and predictors," Children and Youth Services Review, Elsevier, vol. 26(2), pages 185-206, February.
    2. Oaxaca, Ronald L. & Ransom, Michael R., 1994. "On discrimination and the decomposition of wage differentials," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 61(1), pages 5-21, March.
    3. Nabanita Datta Gupta & Ronald L. Oaxaca & Nina Smith, 2006. "Swimming upstream, floating downstream: Comparing women's relative wage progress in the United States and Denmark," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 59(2), pages 243-266, January.
    4. Yun, Myeong-Su, 2003. "A Simple Solution to the Identification Problem in Detailed Wage Decompositions," IZA Discussion Papers 836, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    5. Ben Jann, 2008. "A Stata implementation of the Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition," ETH Zurich Sociology Working Papers 5, ETH Zurich, Chair of Sociology, revised 14 May 2008.
    6. Courtney, Mark E. & Yin-Ling Irene Wong, 1996. "Comparing the timing of exits from substitute care," Children and Youth Services Review, Elsevier, vol. 18(4-5), pages 307-334.
    7. Michael Ransom & Ronald L. Oaxaca, 2005. "Intrafirm mobility and sex differences in pay," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 58(2), pages 219-237, January.
    8. Alan S. Blinder, 1973. "Wage Discrimination: Reduced Form and Structural Estimates," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 8(4), pages 436-455.
    9. Ronald L. Oaxaca & Michael R. Ransom, 1999. "Identification in Detailed Wage Decompositions," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 81(1), pages 154-157, February.
    10. Jones, Loring, 1998. "The social and family correlates of successful reunification of children in foster care," Children and Youth Services Review, Elsevier, vol. 20(4), pages 305-323, May.
    11. Wulczyn, Fred, 2003. "Closing the gap: are changing exit patterns reducing the time African American children spend in foster care relative to Caucasian children?," Children and Youth Services Review, Elsevier, vol. 25(5-6), pages 431-462.
    12. Connell, Christian M. & Katz, Karol H. & Saunders, Leon & Tebes, Jacob Kraemer, 2006. "Leaving foster care--the influence of child and case characteristics on foster care exit rates," Children and Youth Services Review, Elsevier, vol. 28(7), pages 780-798, July.
    13. Oaxaca, Ronald, 1973. "Male-Female Wage Differentials in Urban Labor Markets," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 14(3), pages 693-709, October.
    14. William C. Horrace & Ronald L. Oaxaca, 2001. "Inter-industry wage differentials and the gender wage gap: An identification problem," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 54(3), pages 611-618, April.
    15. Yampolskaya, Svetlana & Armstrong, Mary I. & Vargo, Amy C., 2007. "Factors associated with exiting and reentry into out-of-home care under Community-Based Care in Florida," Children and Youth Services Review, Elsevier, vol. 29(10), pages 1352-1367, October.
    16. Wells, Kathleen & Guo, Shenyang, 1999. "Reunification and reentry of foster children," Children and Youth Services Review, Elsevier, vol. 21(4), pages 273-294, April.
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    Cited by:
    1. Boyd, Reiko, 2014. "African American disproportionality and disparity in child welfare: Toward a comprehensive conceptual framework," Children and Youth Services Review, Elsevier, vol. 37(C), pages 15-27.

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