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Bank money, aggregate liquidity, and asset prices


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  • Junfeng Qiu

    (CEMA, Central University of Finance and Economics)


We build a general equilibrium model to analyze how the ability of banks to create money can affect asset prices and financial stability. In the model, demand for liquidity takes the form of demand for money to make payments. We show that banks can provide elastic aggregate liquidity by creating and lending out deposits, which will reduce the need for people to sell assets and help maintain asset price stability. We also compare two types of liquidity provision mechanisms. The first is liquidity-risk-sharing through a Diamond-and-Dybvig style coalition that pools together people¡¯s resources, and the second is liquidity provision by banks though money creation. We show that without elastic aggregate liquidity provided by banks, coalitions can not actually perform their risk-sharing function, their attempt to sell assets to raise liquidity will only make asset prices decrease further, without actually raising more liquidity for shareholders hit by liquidity shocks. However, with banks providing elastic aggregate liquidity, people can indeed achieve better risk-sharing though coalitions. Finally, we show that the central bank can help banks provide liquidity to the market by lending to banks at low interest rates during the inter-bank settlement process, so as to relax the liquidity constraint of banks.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Society for AEF in its journal Annals of Economics and Finance.

Volume (Year): 12 (2011)
Issue (Month): 2 (November)
Pages: 295-346

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Handle: RePEc:cuf:journl:y:2011:v:12:i:2:p:295-346

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Related research

Keywords: Liquidity; Asset prices; Banking; Inside money; Monetary policy; Payment system;

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  1. Allen Head & Junfeng Qiu, 2011. "Elastic Money, Inflation, and Interest Rate Policy," Working Papers, Queen's University, Department of Economics 1152, Queen's University, Department of Economics.
  2. Jianjun Miao, . "Ambiguity, Risk and Portfolio Choice under Incomplete Information," Boston University - Department of Economics - Working Papers Series, Boston University - Department of Economics wp2009-019, Boston University - Department of Economics.
  3. Bullard, James & Smith, Bruce D., 2003. "Intermediaries and payments instruments," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 109(2), pages 172-197, April.
  4. Liutang Gong & William Smith & Heng-fu Zou, 2011. "Asset Prices and Hyperbolic Discounting," CEMA Working Papers, China Economics and Management Academy, Central University of Finance and Economics 486, China Economics and Management Academy, Central University of Finance and Economics.
  5. Freeman, Scott, 1996. "The Payments System, Liquidity, and Rediscounting," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 86(5), pages 1126-38, December.
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  7. Benjamin Lester, 2006. "A Model of Interbank Settlement," 2006 Meeting Papers, Society for Economic Dynamics 282, Society for Economic Dynamics.
  8. David Andolfatto & Ed Nosal, 2001. "A simple model of money and banking," Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland, issue Q III, pages 20-28.
  9. Freeman, Scott, 1996. "Clearinghouse banks and banknote over-issue," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 38(1), pages 101-115, August.
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Cited by:
  1. Liu, Luke, 2011. "Asset price, asset securitization and financial stability," MPRA Paper 35000, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  2. Wei Ma & Chuangyin Dang, 2013. "The Optimal Price of Default," Annals of Economics and Finance, Society for AEF, Society for AEF, vol. 14(1), pages 145-167, May.


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