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The value of inside and outside money

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  • James Bullard
  • Bruce D. Smith

Abstract

We study dynamic economies in which agents may have incentives to hold both privately-issued (a.k.a. inside) and publicly-issued (a.k.a. outside) circulating liabilities as part of an equilibrium. Our analysis emphasizes spatial separation and limited communication as frictions that motivate monetary exchange. We isolate conditions under which a combination of inside and outside money does and does not allow the economy to achieve a first-best allocation of resources. We also study the extent to which the use of private circulating liabilities alone, or the use of public circulating liabilities alone, can address the frictions that lead to monetary exchange. We identify conditions under which both types of liabilities are essential to efficiency. However, even when these conditions are satisfied, we show that political economy considerations may lead to a prohibition against private circulating liabilities. Finally, we analyze the consequences of such a prohibition for the determinacy of equilibrium, and for endogenously arising volatility.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis in its series Working Papers with number 2000-027.

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Date of creation: 2001
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Handle: RePEc:fip:fedlwp:2000-027

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Keywords: Money ; Money theory;

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References

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  1. Champ, B. & Snith, B.D. & Williamson, D.S., 1991. "Currency Elasticity and Banking Panics: Theory and Evidence," RCER Working Papers 292, University of Rochester - Center for Economic Research (RCER).
  2. Bullard, James & Smith, Bruce D., 2003. "The value of inside and outside money," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 50(2), pages 389-417, March.
  3. Townsend, Robert M, 1987. "Economic Organization with Limited Communication," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 77(5), pages 954-71, December.
  4. Cavalcanti, Ricardo de O & Wallace, Neil, 1999. "Inside and Outside Money as Alternative Media of Exchange," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 31(3), pages 443-57, August.
  5. Bruce D. Smith & Warren E. Weber, 1999. "Private money creation and the Suffolk Banking System," Proceedings, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland, pages 624-667.
  6. Sargent, Thomas J & Wallace, Neil, 1982. "The Real-Bills Doctrine versus the Quantity Theory: A Reconsideration," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 90(6), pages 1212-36, December.
  7. Stephen D. Williamson, 1999. "Private money," Proceedings, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland, pages 469-499.
  8. James Bullard & Bruce D. Smith, 2002. "Intermediaries and payments instruments," Working Papers 2002-006, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis.
  9. Burdett, Kenneth & Trejos, Alberto & Wright, Randall, 2001. "Cigarette Money," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 99(1-2), pages 117-142, July.
  10. Temzelides, Ted & Williamson, Stephen D., 2001. "Private money, settlement, and discounts," Carnegie-Rochester Conference Series on Public Policy, Elsevier, vol. 54(1), pages 85-108, June.
  11. Stacey L. Schreft, 1997. "Looking forward : the role for government in regulating electronic cash," Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, issue Q IV, pages 59-84.
  12. Williamson, Stephen D., 1992. "Laissez-faire banking and circulating media of exchange," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 2(2), pages 134-167, June.
  13. Costas Azariadis & James Bullard & Lee E. Ohanian, 1998. "Complex eigenvalues and trend-reverting fluctuations," Staff Report 255, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis.
  14. Kocherlakota, Narayana R., 1998. "Money Is Memory," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 81(2), pages 232-251, August.
  15. Kiyotaki, Nobuhiro & Wright, Randall, 1989. "On Money as a Medium of Exchange," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 97(4), pages 927-54, August.
  16. Kiyotaki, Nobuhiro & Wright, Randall, 1993. "A Search-Theoretic Approach to Monetary Economics," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 83(1), pages 63-77, March.
  17. Gale, David, 1973. "Pure exchange equilibrium of dynamic economic models," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 6(1), pages 12-36, February.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Marko Backovic & Zoran Popovic, 2012. "The Analysis Of Model Of General Economic Equilibrium And Financial Instability Of Economic System," Montenegrin Journal of Economics, Economic Laboratory for Transition Research (ELIT), vol. 8(1), pages 63-85.
  2. Sun, Hongfei, 2007. "Banking, Inside Money and Outside Money," MPRA Paper 4504, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  3. Xavier Cuadras, 2005. "Circulation of Private Notes during a Currency Shortage," Working Papers 164, Barcelona Graduate School of Economics.
  4. Lacker, Jeffrey M. & Weinberg, John A., 2003. "Payment economics: studying the mechanics of exchange," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 50(2), pages 381-387, March.
  5. Bullard, James & Smith, Bruce D., 2003. "Intermediaries and payments instruments," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 109(2), pages 172-197, April.
  6. David C. Mills, Jr, 2008. "Imperfect Monitoring And The Discounting Of Inside Money," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 49(3), pages 737-754, 08.
  7. Li, Yan, 2009. "The theory of fiat money and private money as alternative media of exchange," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 18(4), pages 568-582, October.
  8. James Bullard & Bruce D. Smith, 2001. "The value of inside and outside money," Working Papers 2000-027, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis.
  9. Sissoko, Carolyn, 2007. "An Idealized View of Financial Intermediation," Economics - The Open-Access, Open-Assessment E-Journal, Kiel Institute for the World Economy, vol. 1(5), pages 1-29.
  10. Marco Arnone & Luca Bandiera, 2004. "Monetary Policy, Monetary Areas, and Financial Development with Electronic Money," IMF Working Papers 04/122, International Monetary Fund.

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