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Real-time gross settlement and the costs of immediacy

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  • Charles M. Kahn
  • William Roberds

Abstract

Using a neoclassical monetary model, we investigate the welfare cost of a payment system that operates as a real-time gross settlement (RTGS) system. We illustrate how the cost of such systems does not ultimately derive from factors such as "payments gridlock" but instead from the credit constraints imposed by RTGS. We also investigate the welfare consequences of various approaches to the allocation of daylight credit by central banks. The two most popular approaches, collateralization and charging an administered intraday interest rate, are shown to be effective along some dimensions but flawed in others.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta in its series Working Paper with number 98-21.

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Date of creation: 1999
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Publication status: Published in Journal of Monetary Economics, April 2001
Handle: RePEc:fip:fedawp:98-21

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Keywords: Money ; Payment systems;

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  1. Kahn, Charles M & McAndrews, James & Roberds, William, 2003. " Settlement Risk under Gross and Net Settlement," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 35(4), pages 591-608, August.
  2. Charles M. Kahn & William Roberds, 1997. "Payment system settlement and bank incentives," Proceedings 537, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
  3. Sargent, Thomas J & Wallace, Neil, 1982. "The Real-Bills Doctrine versus the Quantity Theory: A Reconsideration," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 90(6), pages 1212-36, December.
  4. Angelini, Paolo, 1998. "An analysis of competitive externalities in gross settlement systems," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 22(1), pages 1-18, January.
  5. Edward J. Green, 1999. "Money and debt in the structure of payments," Quarterly Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis, issue Spr, pages 13-29.
  6. Freeman, Scott, 1996. "The Payments System, Liquidity, and Rediscounting," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 86(5), pages 1126-38, December.
  7. Hancock, Diana & Wilcox, James A, 1996. "Intraday Management of Bank Reserves: The Effects of Caps and Fees on Daylight Overdrafts," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 28(4), pages 870-908, November.
  8. Freeman, Scott, 1996. "Clearinghouse banks and banknote over-issue," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 38(1), pages 101-115, August.
  9. Jeffrey M. Lacker, 1997. "Clearing, settlement, and monetary policy," Working Paper 97-01, Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond.
  10. Kobayakawa, Shuji, 1997. "The Comparative Analysis of Settlement Systems," CEPR Discussion Papers 1667, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  11. Furfine, Craig H & Stehm, Jeff, 1998. "Analyzing Alternative Intraday Credit Policies in Real-Time Gross Settlement Systems," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 30(4), pages 832-48, November.
  12. Dirk Schoenmaker & Peter M. Garber & D. F. I. Folkerts-Landau, 1996. "The Reform of Wholesale Payment Systems and its Impacton Financial Markets," IMF Working Papers 96/37, International Monetary Fund.
  13. William R. Emmons, 1997. "Recent developments in wholesale payments systems," Review, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, issue Nov, pages 23-43.
  14. Diana Hancock & James A. Wilcox, 1996. "Intraday management of bank reserves: the effects of caps and fees on daylight overdrafts," Proceedings, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.), pages 870-913.
  15. Douglas D. Evanoff, 1988. "Daylight overdrafts: rationale and risks," Economic Perspectives, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, issue May, pages 18-29.
  16. Champ, B. & Snith, B.D. & Williamson, D.S., 1991. "Currency Elasticity and Banking Panics: Theory and Evidence," RCER Working Papers 292, University of Rochester - Center for Economic Research (RCER).
  17. Freeman, Scott, 1999. "Rediscounting under aggregate risk," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 43(1), pages 197-216, February.
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