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Desigualdad salarial en Colombia 1984-2005: cambios en la composición del mercado laboral y retornos a la educación post-secundaria

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  • Christian Manuel Posso

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Abstract

En el periodo 1984-2005 se registró un incremento sustancial en la desigualdad salarialque fue mucho más marcado a partir del año 1995, momento en el cual también se dioun crecimiento significativo de la población asalariada con educación post-secundaria.A su vez esta desigualdad fue más importante dentro del grupo de los más educados.Este documento expone nuevas alternativas para el análisis de la desigualdad salarial enColombia. Inicialmente, se utiliza un método de descomposición para la desigualdadbasado en una estimación condicional de la distribución de ingresos utilizando laregresión por percentiles; este método descompone los cambios en la distribución entres factores: características, coeficientes y residuales.Los resultados muestran que el crecimiento de la desigualdad depende principalmentede los cambios en la distribución de las características de los asalariados para el periodo1984-2005, resultado contrario a lo planteado por algunos trabajos previos donde semuestra que el crecimiento de la desigualdad depende fundamentalmente de losresiduales. La técnica aquí presentada corrige algunas de las deficiencias del métodooriginal de descomposición de Juhn, Murphy y Pierce (1993). Posteriormente,utilizando la regresión por percentiles se intenta mostrar que los premios a la educaciónpost-secundaria tienen un rol principal en la explicación del crecimiento de ladesigualdad dentro del grupo de los más educados, particularmente por una caída en elpremio en la parte baja de la distribución (50/10) para el periodo 1995-2005.

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Article provided by UNIVERSIDAD DE LOS ANDES-CEDE in its journal REVISTA DESARROLLO Y SOCIEDAD.

Volume (Year): (2010)
Issue (Month): ()
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Handle: RePEc:col:000090:008766

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Related research

Keywords: Desigualdad de ingresos; Regresión por percentiles; Descomposiciónde ingresos; Retornos a la educación;

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References

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  1. Carlos Medina & Christian Posso, . "Technical Change and Polarization of the Labor Market: Evidence for Brazil, Colombia and Mexico," Borradores de Economia, Banco de la Republica de Colombia 614, Banco de la Republica de Colombia.
  2. Victor Chernozhukov & Iván Fernández‐Val & Blaise Melly, 2013. "Inference on Counterfactual Distributions," Econometrica, Econometric Society, Econometric Society, vol. 81(6), pages 2205-2268, November.
  3. Luis Eduardo Arango & Carlos Esteban Posada & José Darío Uribe, . "Cambios en la Estructura de los Salarios Urbanos en Colombia (1984-2000)," Borradores de Economia, Banco de la Republica de Colombia 297, Banco de la Republica de Colombia.
  4. Alejandro Badel & Ximena Peña, 2010. "Decomposing the GenderWage Gap with Sample Selection Adjustment: Evidence from Colombia," DOCUMENTOS CEDE, UNIVERSIDAD DE LOS ANDES-CEDE 007725, UNIVERSIDAD DE LOS ANDES-CEDE.
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  14. Nohora Y. Forero Ramírez & Manuel Ramírez Gómez, 2008. "Determinantes de los ingresos laborales de los graduados universitarios durante el período 2001-2004," DOCUMENTOS DE TRABAJO, UNIVERSIDAD DEL ROSARIO 004591, UNIVERSIDAD DEL ROSARIO.
  15. Maarten Goos & Alan Manning, 2003. "Lousy and Lovely Jobs: the Rising Polarization of Work in Britain," CEP Discussion Papers, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE dp0604, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
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Cited by:
  1. Carlos Medina & Christian Posso, . "Technical Change and Polarization of the Labor Market: Evidence for Brazil, Colombia and Mexico," Borradores de Economia, Banco de la Republica de Colombia 614, Banco de la Republica de Colombia.
  2. Ramirez, Francisco A., 2012. "Descomponiendo la Desigualdad Salarial en la República Dominicana: Análisis Empírico para el Periodo 2000-2011
    [Decomposing Wage Inequality in the Dominican Republic: Empirical Analysis for the
    ," MPRA Paper 51993, University Library of Munich, Germany.

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