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The Entrepreneurial Ladder in Transition and Non-Transition Economies


Author Info

  • van der Zwan Peter

    (Erasmus University Rotterdam and EIM Business & Policy Research)

  • Verheul Ingrid

    (Erasmus University Rotterdam)

  • Thurik Roy

    (Erasmus University Rotterdam and EIM Business & Policy Research)


This paper compares (former) transition and non-transition economies in Europe and Asia with respect to the opportunities available to achieve entrepreneurial progress. In addition, the differential impacts of three perceived environmental barriers to new venture creation are investigated. Entrepreneurial progress is measured using five levels of incremental entrepreneurial involvement. Data from the 2009 “Flash Eurobarometer Survey on Entrepreneurship, No. 283” by the European Commission, which covers all 27 EU Member States, five other European countries, China, Japan, South Korea, and the U.S., are used. China is found to have a forward position during the early stages of entrepreneurial progress, which contrasts with a lack of early-stage entrepreneurial potential in Japan and South Korea. However, converting nascent activities into a business start-up seems to be the most difficult in China and the U.S. Furthermore, we find that perceived environmental constraints hinder entrepreneurial progress most in (former) European transition countries.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by De Gruyter in its journal Entrepreneurship Research Journal.

Volume (Year): 1 (2011)
Issue (Month): 2 (March)
Pages: 1-20

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Handle: RePEc:bpj:erjour:v:1:y:2011:i:2:n:4

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Cited by:
  1. Peter Zwan & Ingrid Verheul & A. Thurik, 2012. "The entrepreneurial ladder, gender, and regional development," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 39(3), pages 627-643, October.
  2. André van Stel & J. Cieslik Cieslik, 2014. "Trends in Business Ownership in Central and East European Transition Economies," Scales Research Reports H201202, EIM Business and Policy Research.
  3. Claudia Trentini & Malinka Koparanova, 2013. "Corruption and entrepreneurship: does gender matter?," ECE Discussion Papers Series 2013_1, UNECE.


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