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Risky Habits: on Risk Sharing, Habit Formation, and the Interpretation of International Consumption Correlations

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  • Jeffrey C. Fuhrer
  • Michael W. Klein

Abstract

Standard international economic models with life cycle/permanent income consumption behavior predict that international portfolio diversification leads to high bilateral consumption correlations. Thus international consumption correlations have been empirically estimated as a test of international portfolio diversification and risk sharing. In this paper we investigate the international consumption correlations generated by a more general model which incorporates habit formation in consumption. We show that, in the presence of a common shock, habit formation itself can generate positive international consumption correlations even in the absence of any international risk sharing. Empirical evidence presented in this paper suggests habit formation characterizes consumption behavior among most of the G-7 countries. Thus, the extent of international portfolio diversification may be even lower than that suggested by previous research which studied international consumption correlations. Copyright � 2006 The Authors; Journal compilation � 2006 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Wiley Blackwell in its journal Review of International Economics.

Volume (Year): 14 (2006)
Issue (Month): 4 (09)
Pages: 722-740

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Handle: RePEc:bla:reviec:v:14:y:2006:i:4:p:722-740

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References

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  1. Evans, Paul & Karras, Georgios, 1997. "International integration of capital markets and the cross-country divergence of per capita consumption," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 16(5), pages 681-697, September.
  2. Jeffrey C. Fuhrer, 1998. "An optimizing model for monetary policy analysis: can habit formation help?," Working Papers 98-1, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston.
  3. Michael R. Pakko, 1998. "Characterizing Cross-Country Consumption Correlations," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 80(1), pages 169-174, February.
  4. David K. Backus & Patrick J. Kehoe & Finn E. Kydland, 1991. "International real business cycles," Staff Report 146, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis.
  5. Michael B. Devereux & Allan W. Gregory & Gregor W. Smith, 1990. "Realistic Cross-Country Consumption Correlations in a Two-Country, Equilibrium, Business Cycle Model," Working Papers 774, Queen's University, Department of Economics.
  6. Maurice Obstfeld., 1993. "Are Industrial-Country Consumption Risks Globally Diversified?," Center for International and Development Economics Research (CIDER) Working Papers C93-014, University of California at Berkeley.
  7. Jody Overland & Christopher D. Carroll & David N. Weil, 2000. "Saving and Growth with Habit Formation," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 90(3), pages 341-355, June.
  8. Baxter, M. & Crucini, M.J., 1990. "Explaining Saving/Investment Correlation," RCER Working Papers 224, University of Rochester - Center for Economic Research (RCER).
  9. Alan C. Stockman & Linda L. Tesar, 1995. "Tastes and Technology in a Two-Country Model of the Business Cycle: Explaining International Comovements," NBER Working Papers 3566, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  10. Anderson, Gary & Moore, George, 1985. "A linear algebraic procedure for solving linear perfect foresight models," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 17(3), pages 247-252.
  11. Campbell, John Y. & Mankiw, N. Gregory, 1991. "The response of consumption to income : A cross-country investigation," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 35(4), pages 723-756, May.
  12. Baxter, M. & Jermann, U.J., 1993. "The International Diversification Puzzle is Worse than you Think," RCER Working Papers 350, University of Rochester - Center for Economic Research (RCER).
  13. Tesar, Linda L., 1993. "International risk-sharing and non-traded goods," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 35(1-2), pages 69-89, August.
  14. Mansoorian, Arman, 1998. "Habits and durability in consumption, and the dynamics of the current account," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 44(1), pages 69-82, February.
  15. Lewis, Karen K, 1996. "What Can Explain the Apparent Lack of International Consumption Risk Sharing?," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 104(2), pages 267-97, April.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Carroll, Christopher D., 2000. "Solving consumption models with multiplicative habits," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 68(1), pages 67-77, July.
  2. Simone Valente, 2009. "Accumulation Regimes in Dynastic Economies with Resource Dependence and Habit Formation," CER-ETH Economics working paper series 09/101, CER-ETH - Center of Economic Research (CER-ETH) at ETH Zurich.
  3. Duernecker, Georg, 2007. "Growth Effects of Consumption Jealousy in a Two-Sector Model," Economics Series 201, Institute for Advanced Studies.
  4. Andreas Schäfer & Simone Valente, 2007. "Habit Formation, Dynastic Altruism, and Population Dynamics," CER-ETH Economics working paper series 07/77, CER-ETH - Center of Economic Research (CER-ETH) at ETH Zurich.
  5. Fanelli, Luca & Cavaliere, Giuseppe & Gardini, Attilio, 2004. "Consumption risk sharing and adjustment costs," MPRA Paper 1641, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised Nov 2006.
  6. Aidan Corcoran, 2008. "International Financial Integration and Consumption Risk Sharing," The Institute for International Integration Studies Discussion Paper Series iiisdp241, IIIS.
  7. Jody Overland & Christopher D. Carroll & David N. Weil, 2000. "Saving and Growth with Habit Formation," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 90(3), pages 341-355, June.
  8. Emilio Fernandez-Corugedo & Simon Price & Andrew Blake, 2003. "The dynamics of consumers' expenditure: the UK consumption ECM redux," Bank of England working papers 204, Bank of England.
  9. Stephen Turnovsky & Goncalo Monteiro, 2006. "Consumption Externalities, Production Externalities, and Efficient Capital Accumulation under Time Non-Separable Preferences," Working Papers UWEC-2006-26-P, University of Washington, Department of Economics.
  10. Francisco Alvarez-Cuadrado & Jose Maria Casado & Jose Maria Labeaga & Dhanoos Sutthiphisal, 2012. "Envy and habits: panel data estimates of interdependent preferences," Banco de Espa�a Working Papers 1213, Banco de Espa�a.
  11. Been-Lon Chen, 2007. "Multiple BGPs in a Growth Model with Habit Persistence," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 39(1), pages 25-48, 02.

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