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EU Policies on Bioenergy and their Potential Clash with the WTO


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  • Alan Swinbank


The paper outlines EU policy on bioenergy, including biofuels, in the context of its policy initiatives to promote renewable energy to combat greenhouse gas emissions and climate change. The EU's Member States are responsible for implementing EU policy: thus, the UK's Renewables Obligation on electricity suppliers and its Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation and road-fuel tax rebates are examined. It is unlikely that EU policy is in conflict with the WTO Agreement on Agriculture or that on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures, but its provisions on environmental sustainability criteria could be problematic. Copyright (c) 2009 The Author. Journal compilation (c) 2009 The Agricultural Economics Society.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Wiley Blackwell in its journal Journal of Agricultural Economics.

Volume (Year): 60 (2009)
Issue (Month): 3 ()
Pages: 485-503

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Handle: RePEc:bla:jageco:v:60:y:2009:i:3:p:485-503

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Cited by:
  1. Robert Ackrill & Adrian Kay, 2010. "WTO Regulations and Bioenergy Sustainability Certification – Synergies and Possible Conflicts," Working Papers 2010/9, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham Business School, Economics Division.
  2. Jones, Philip & Salter, Andrew, 2013. "Modelling the economics of farm-based anaerobic digestion in a UK whole-farm context," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 62(C), pages 215-225.
  3. Sivek, Martin & Kavina, Pavel & Jirásek, Jakub, 2011. "European Union and the formation of its initiative in energy minerals," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(9), pages 5535-5540, September.
  4. Swinbank, Alan & Tranter, Richard & Jones, Philip, 2011. "Mandates, buyouts and fuel-tax rebates: Some economic aspects of biofuel policies using the UK as an example," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(3), pages 1249-1253, March.
  5. Tranter, R.B. & Swinbank, A. & Jones, P.J. & Banks, C.J. & Salter, A.M., 2011. "Assessing the potential for the uptake of on-farm anaerobic digestion for energy production in England," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(5), pages 2424-2430, May.


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