Optimal estimation of a large-dimensional covariance matrix under Stein’s loss
This paper introduces a new method for deriving covariance matrix estimators that are decision-theoretically optimal. The key is to employ large-dimensional asymptotics: the matrix dimension and the sample size go to infinity together, with their ratio converging to a finite, nonzero limit. As the main focus, we apply this method to Stein's loss. Compared to the estimator of Stein (1975, 1986), ours has five theoretical advantages: (1) it asymptotically minimizes the loss itself, instead of an estimator of the expected loss; (2) it does not necessitate post-processing via an ad hoc algorithm (called "isotonization") to restore the positivity or the ordering of the covariance matrix eigenvalues; (3) it does not ignore any terms in the function to be minimized; (4) it does not require normality; and (5) it is not limited to applications where the sample size exceeds the dimension. In addition to these theoretical advantages, our estimator also improves upon Stein' estimator in terms of finite-sample performance, as evidenced via extensive Monte Carlo simulations. To further demonstrate the effectiveness of our method, we show that some previously suggested estimators of the covariance matrix and its inverse are decision-theoretically optimal with respect to the Frobenius loss function.
|Date of creation:||May 2013|
|Date of revision:||Nov 2014|
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- Silverstein, J. W. & Choi, S. I., 1995. "Analysis of the Limiting Spectral Distribution of Large Dimensional Random Matrices," Journal of Multivariate Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 54(2), pages 295-309, August.
- Silverstein, J. W. & Bai, Z. D., 1995. "On the Empirical Distribution of Eigenvalues of a Class of Large Dimensional Random Matrices," Journal of Multivariate Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 54(2), pages 175-192, August.
- Ledoit, Olivier & Wolf, Michael, 2004. "A well-conditioned estimator for large-dimensional covariance matrices," Journal of Multivariate Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 88(2), pages 365-411, February.
- Silverstein, J. W., 1995. "Strong Convergence of the Empirical Distribution of Eigenvalues of Large Dimensional Random Matrices," Journal of Multivariate Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 55(2), pages 331-339, November.
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