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Managed floating: Understanding the new international monetary order

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  • Bofinger, Peter
  • Wollmershäuser, Timo

Abstract

Although there seems to be a broad consensus among economists that purely floating or completely fixed exchange rates (the so-called corner solutions) are the only viable alternatives of exchange rate management, many countries do not behave according to this paradigm and adopt a strategy within the broad spectrum of exchange rate regimes that is limited by the two corner solutions. These intermediate regimes are characterized by significant foreign exchange market interventions of central banks and a certain degree of exchange rate flexibility. We develop a new empirical methodology that identifies three different forms of floating on the basis of a central bank's intervention activity: pure floating (no interventions), independent floating (exchange rate smoothing), and managed floating (exchange rate targeting). Our cross-country study shows that exchange rate targeting is at least as important as exchange rate smoothing. Subsequently we present a monetary policy framework in which central banks use the exchange rate as an operating target of monetary policy. We explain the mechanics of interventions and sterilization and we explain why a central bank has an interest of controlling simultaneously the exchange rate and the short-term interest rate. We derive the monetary policy rules for our two operating targets from a simple open economy macro model in which the uncovered interest parity condition and the Monetary Conditions Index play a central role.

Suggested Citation

  • Bofinger, Peter & Wollmershäuser, Timo, 2001. "Managed floating: Understanding the new international monetary order," W.E.P. - Würzburg Economic Papers 30, University of Würzburg, Chair for Monetary Policy and International Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:zbw:wuewep:30
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Francisco Gallego & Geraint Jones, 2006. "Exchange Rate Interventions and Insurance: Is Fear of Floating a Cause for Concern?," Central Banking, Analysis, and Economic Policies Book Series,in: Ricardo Caballero & César Calderón & Luis Felipe Céspedes & Norman Loayza (Series Editor) & Klaus Sc (ed.), External Vulnerability and Preventive Policies, edition 1, volume 10, chapter 11, pages 353-398 Central Bank of Chile.
    2. Thomas D. Willett, 2002. "Fear of Floating Needn't Imply Fixed Rates: Feasible Options for Intermediate Exchange Rate Regimes," Claremont Colleges Working Papers 2002-18, Claremont Colleges.
    3. Adam Gersl & Tomás Holub, 2006. "Foreign Exchange Interventions Under Inflation Targeting: The Czech Experience," Contemporary Economic Policy, Western Economic Association International, vol. 24(4), pages 475-491, October.
    4. Thomas Willett, 2003. "Fear of Floating Needn't Imply Fixed Rates: An OCA Approach to the Operation of Stable Intermediate Currency Regimes," Open Economies Review, Springer, vol. 14(1), pages 71-91, January.
    5. Juraj Antal & Tomáš Holub, 2007. "Exchange Rate Arrangements Prior to Euro Adoption," Czech Economic Review, Charles University Prague, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute of Economic Studies, vol. 1(3), pages 312-323, November.
    6. Wai-Ching Poon, 2010. "A monetary policy rule: The augmented Monetary Conditions Index for Philippines using UECM and bounds tests," Monash Economics Working Papers 04-10, Monash University, Department of Economics.
    7. Aleš Bulíø, 2005. "Liberalized Markets Have More Stable Exchange Rates: Short-Run Evidence from Four Transition Countries," Czech Journal of Economics and Finance (Finance a uver), Charles University Prague, Faculty of Social Sciences, vol. 55(5-6), pages 206-231, May.
    8. Mauricio A. Hernández Monsalve & Ramón Javier Mesa Callejas, 2006. "El efecto de las intervenciones cambiarias: la experiencia colombiana 2004-2006," BORRADORES DEL CIE 004192, UNIVERSIDAD DE ANTIOQUIA - CIE.
    9. Isriya Nitithanprapas & Thomas D. Willett, 2002. "Classifying Exchange Rate Regimes," Claremont Colleges Working Papers 2002-22, Claremont Colleges.
    10. Benassy-Quere, Agnes & Coeure, Benoit & Mignon, Valerie, 2006. "On the identification of de facto currency pegs," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 20(1), pages 112-127, March.
    11. Hammermann, Felix, 2003. "Comparing Monetary Policy Strategies: Towards a Generalized Reaction Function," Kiel Working Papers 1170, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW).
    12. Andrea Bubula & Inci Ötker, 2002. "The Evolution of Exchange Rate Regimes Since 1990; Evidence From De Facto Policies," IMF Working Papers 02/155, International Monetary Fund.
    13. Peter Bofinger & Timo Wollmershäuser, 2003. "Managed Floating as a Monetary Policy Strategy," Economic Change and Restructuring, Springer, vol. 36(2), pages 81-109, June.
    14. Capraro Rodríguez Santiago & Perrotini Hernández Ignacio, 2012. "Intervenciones cambiarias esterilizadas, teoría y evidencia:el caso de México," Contaduría y Administración, Accounting and Management, vol. 57(2), pages 11-44, abril-jun.
    15. Wieslawa Przybylska-Kapuścinska, 2007. "Monetary Policy of the Baltic States - new EU Members," Ekonomia journal, Faculty of Economic Sciences, University of Warsaw, vol. 19.
    16. Chen, Shiu-Sheng, 2006. "Revisiting the interest rate-exchange rate nexus: a Markov-switching approach," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 79(1), pages 208-224, February.
    17. Gonzalo Caprirolo & Vladimir Lavrac, 2003. "Monetary and Exchange Rate Policy in Slovenia," Eastward Enlargement of the Euro-zone Working Papers wp17g, Free University Berlin, Jean Monnet Centre of Excellence, revised 01 May 2003.
    18. Gan, Pei-Tha, 2014. "The precise form of financial integration: Empirical evidence for selected Asian countries," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 42(C), pages 208-219.
    19. Timo Wollmershäuser, 2003. "Sterilisierte Devisenmarktinterventionen - ein umstrittenes währungspolitisches Instrument," ifo Schnelldienst, ifo Institute - Leibniz Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich, vol. 56(19), pages 34-44, October.
    20. Gabriela Contreras M. & Alfredo Pistelli M. & Camila Sáez M., 2013. "Efecto de Intervenciones Cambiarias Recientes en Economías Emergentes," Notas de Investigación Journal Economía Chilena (The Chilean Economy), Central Bank of Chile, vol. 16(1), pages 122-137, April.
    21. Guillermo J. Escudé (ed.), 2008. "ARGEM: A Dynamic Stochastic General Equilibrium Model for Argentina," BCRA Paper Series, Central Bank of Argentina, Economic Research Department, number 05, December.
    22. Chayawadee Chai-anant & Runchana Pongsaparn & Kessarin Tansuwanarat, 2008. "Roles of Exchange Rate in Monetary Policy under Inflation Targeting: A Case Study for Thailand," Working Papers 2008-03, Monetary Policy Group, Bank of Thailand.
    23. Ales Bulir, 2003. "Some Exchange Rates Are More Stable than Others: Short-Run Evidence from Transition Countries," Working Papers 2003/05, Czech National Bank, Research Department.
    24. Brause, Alexander, 2008. "Foreign exchange interventions in emerging market countries: New lessons from Argentina," W.E.P. - Würzburg Economic Papers 79, University of Würzburg, Chair for Monetary Policy and International Economics.
    25. Polgár, Éva Katalin, 2003. "Az Európai Monetáris Rendszer és az ERM-2
      [The European Monetary System and ERM-2]
      ," Közgazdasági Szemle (Economic Review - monthly of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences), Közgazdasági Szemle Alapítvány (Economic Review Foundation), vol. 0(4), pages 350-369.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    exchange rate regime; monetary policy; interventions; sterilization; floating; Monetary Conditions Index;

    JEL classification:

    • E52 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit - - - Monetary Policy
    • F31 - International Economics - - International Finance - - - Foreign Exchange
    • F33 - International Economics - - International Finance - - - International Monetary Arrangements and Institutions
    • F41 - International Economics - - Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance - - - Open Economy Macroeconomics

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