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Tax Enforcement and Tax Havens under Formula Apportionment

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  • Becker, Johannes
  • Fuest, Clemens

Abstract

In this paper, we consider optimal tax enforcement policy in the presence of profit shifting towards tax havens. We show that, under separate accounting, tax enforcement levels may be too high due to negative fiscal externalities. In contrast, under formula apportionment, tax enforcement is likely to be too low due to positive externalities of tax enforcement. Our results challenge recent contributions arguing that, under formula apportionment, there is a tendency towards inefficiently high levels of (effective) tax rates.

Suggested Citation

  • Becker, Johannes & Fuest, Clemens, 2007. "Tax Enforcement and Tax Havens under Formula Apportionment," FiFo Discussion Papers - Finanzwissenschaftliche Diskussionsbeiträge 07-8, University of Cologne, FiFo Institute for Public Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:zbw:uoccpe:6152
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Peralta, Susana & Wauthy, Xavier & van Ypersele, Tanguy, 2006. "Should countries control international profit shifting?," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 68(1), pages 24-37, January.
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    3. Søren Bo Nielsen & Pascalis Raimondos–Møller & Guttorm Schjelderup, 2003. "Formula Apportionment and Transfer Pricing under Oligopolistic Competition," Journal of Public Economic Theory, Association for Public Economic Theory, vol. 5(2), pages 419-437, April.
    4. Michael Devereux, 2004. "Debating Proposed Reforms of the Taxation of Corporate Income in the European Union," International Tax and Public Finance, Springer;International Institute of Public Finance, vol. 11(1), pages 71-89, January.
    5. Slemrod, Joel & Wilson, John D., 2009. "Tax competition with parasitic tax havens," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 93(11-12), pages 1261-1270, December.
    6. Gordon, Roger H & Wilson, John Douglas, 1986. "An Examination of Multijurisdictional Corporate Income Taxation under Formula Apportionment," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 54(6), pages 1357-1373, November.
    7. Jack M. Mintz, 1999. "Globalization of the Corporate Income Tax: The Role of Allocation," FinanzArchiv: Public Finance Analysis, Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen, vol. 56(3/4), pages 389-389, July.
    8. Riedel, Nadine & Runkel, Marco, 2007. "Company tax reform with a water's edge," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 91(7-8), pages 1533-1554, August.
    9. Wolfgang Eggert & Guttorm Schjelderup, 2003. "Symmetric Tax Competition under Formula Apportionment," Journal of Public Economic Theory, Association for Public Economic Theory, vol. 5(2), pages 439-446, April.
    10. Johannes Becker & Clemens Fuest, 2010. "Tax enforcement and tax havens under formula apportionment," International Tax and Public Finance, Springer;International Institute of Public Finance, vol. 17(3), pages 217-235, June.
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    Cited by:

    1. Hebous, Shafik & Lipatov, Vilen, 2014. "A journey from a corruption port to a tax haven," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 42(3), pages 739-754.
    2. Leon Bettendorf & Albert Van Der Horst & Ruud A. De Mooij & Hendrik Vrijburg, 2010. "Corporate Tax Consolidation and Enhanced Cooperation in the European Union," Fiscal Studies, Institute for Fiscal Studies, vol. 31(4), pages 453-479, December.
    3. Eichfelder, Sebastian & Hechtner, Frank & Hundsdoerfer, Jochen, 2017. "Formula apportionment: Factor allocation and tax avoidance," arqus Discussion Papers in Quantitative Tax Research 220, arqus - Arbeitskreis Quantitative Steuerlehre.
    4. Johannes Becker & Clemens Fuest, 2010. "Tax enforcement and tax havens under formula apportionment," International Tax and Public Finance, Springer;International Institute of Public Finance, vol. 17(3), pages 217-235, June.
    5. Shafik Hebous, 2014. "Money at the Docks of Tax Havens: A Guide," FinanzArchiv: Public Finance Analysis, Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen, vol. 70(3), pages 458-485, September.
    6. Matthias Wrede, 2014. "Asymmetric tax competition with formula apportionment," Letters in Spatial and Resource Sciences, Springer, vol. 7(1), pages 47-60, March.
    7. Ruud A. de Mooij & Li Liu & Dinar Prihardini, 2019. "An Assessment of Global Formula Apportionment," IMF Working Papers 2019/213, International Monetary Fund.
    8. Eichfelder, Sebastian & Hechtner, Frank & Hundsdoerfer, Jochen, 2015. "Formula apportionment: Factor allocation and tax avoidance," arqus Discussion Papers in Quantitative Tax Research 199, arqus - Arbeitskreis Quantitative Steuerlehre.
    9. Eichfelder, Sebastian & Hechtner, Frank & Hundsdoerfer, Jochen, 2015. "Formula apportionment: Factor allocation and tax avoidance," Discussion Papers 2015/30, Free University Berlin, School of Business & Economics.
    10. Florian Baumann & Tim Friehe, 2013. "Profit Shifting Despite Symmetric Tax Rates? A Note on the Role of Tax Enforcement," International Economic Journal, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 27(1), pages 97-108, March.
    11. Clemens Fuest, 2008. "The European Commission's proposal for a common consolidated corporate tax base," Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Oxford University Press, vol. 24(4), pages 720-739, winter.
    12. Paulo Mourao, 2020. "Exploring the Likelihood of a Country Being a Tax Haven Using MIMIC Models," Econometric Research in Finance, SGH Warsaw School of Economics, Collegium of Economic Analysis, vol. 5(1), pages 17-32, June.
    13. Becker, Johannes & Runkel, Marco, 2013. "Corporate tax regime and international allocation of ownership," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 43(1), pages 8-15.
    14. Ken Klassen, 2016. "Auditing the Auditors: Tax Auditors' Assessments and Incentives," e-briefs 234, C.D. Howe Institute.
    15. Jochen Hundsdoerfer & Julia Wagner, 2020. "How accurately does the CCCTB apportionment formula allocate profits? An evaluation of the European Commission proposal," Journal of Business Economics, Springer, vol. 90(4), pages 495-536, May.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Corporate Taxation; Foreign Direct Investment;

    JEL classification:

    • H25 - Public Economics - - Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue - - - Business Taxes and Subsidies
    • F23 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - Multinational Firms; International Business

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