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Reconstruction of tax balance sheets based on IFRS information: A case study of listed companies within Austria, Germany, and the Netherlands


  • Kager, Rebekka
  • Niemann, Rainer


The internationalisation of financial accounting and the European Commission's ambition to harmonise corporate taxation have raised the question whether IFRS accounts could be used for tax purposes. In order to quantify the effect of an IFRS-based taxation on corporate tax burdens in different EU member states, we estimate firms' tax equity using notes on income taxes in IFRS financial statements of companies listed in Austria, Germany, and the Netherlands. The difference between estimated tax equity and IFRS-equity, adjusted for the effect resulting from the recognition of deferred taxes, indicates the effect of using IFRS as a tax base on corporate tax burden. We find that estimated tax equity is mostly lower than IFRSequity, indicating that an IFRS-based taxation would often increase the corporate tax burden. The median of estimated tax equity is 5.6% (Austria), 6.4% (Germany) and 9.0% (the Netherlands) below IFRS-equity. Our results suggest that using IFRS for the determination of taxable income would often increase corporate tax burden. However, an IFRS-based taxation does not always induce higher equity as often argued in the literature. In 307 of 1.113 totally analysed firm-years, estimated tax equity exceeds IFRS-equity. Analysing IFRS-tax differences on a balance sheet caption level, we find that the most important differences can be observed for intangibles and provisions. We find for all three analysed countries that IFRS-tax differences relating to inventories, receivables, and liabilities are typically small. We also approximate the total stock of unused tax losses and the amount of useable tax losses which can provide additional information about the management's estimates of future earnings. We find that deferred tax assets for unused tax losses are depreciated to a substantial extent, indicating that companies often assume insufficient future taxable income to utilise the total stock of tax loss carry-forwards.

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  • Kager, Rebekka & Niemann, Rainer, 2011. "Reconstruction of tax balance sheets based on IFRS information: A case study of listed companies within Austria, Germany, and the Netherlands," arqus Discussion Papers in Quantitative Tax Research 120, arqus - Arbeitskreis Quantitative Steuerlehre.
  • Handle: RePEc:zbw:arqudp:120

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    1. Mihir A. Desai, 2005. "The Degradation of Reported Corporate Profits," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 19(4), pages 171-192, Fall.
    2. Haverals, Jacqueline, 2005. "IAS/IFRS in Belgium: Quantitative Analysis of the Impact on the Tax Burden of Companies," ZEW Discussion Papers 05-38, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
    3. Mihir A Desai & Dhammika Dharmapala, 2009. "Corporate Tax Avoidance and Firm Value," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 91(3), pages 537-546, August.
    4. Hanlon, Michelle & Laplante, Stacie Kelley & Shevlin, Terry, 2005. "Evidence for the Possible Information Loss of Conforming Book Income and Taxable Income," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 48(2), pages 407-442, October.
    5. Guenther, David A. & Maydew, Edward L. & Nutter, Sarah E., 1997. "Financial reporting, tax costs, and book-tax conformity," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 23(3), pages 225-248, November.
    6. Michelle Hanlon & Terry Shevlin, 2005. "Book-Tax Conformity for Corporate Income: An Introduction to the Issues," NBER Chapters,in: Tax Policy and the Economy, Volume 19, pages 101-134 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    7. repec:bla:joares:v:38:y:2000:i:1:p:1-21 is not listed on IDEAS
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