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The Role of Seasonality in Economic Time Series: Reinterpretating Money-Output Causality in U.S. Data

  • Lee, H.S.
  • Siklos, P.L.

While empirical evidence on the relationship between money and income has mainly been presented using seasonally adjusted data, seasonally unadjusted data are used in this paper to examine the time series behaviour of money, real GNP, and industrial production, at both the seasonal and zero frequencies based on tests of cointegration and seasonal cointegration. Two important conclusions are reached in the paper. First, although the univariate time series properties of M1 and real GNP appear to be very similar at both the seasonal and zero frequencies, seasonal comovements of M1 and real GNP turn out to be different from long- run comovements. Second, when seasonally unadjusted data are used, there appears to be no long-run relationship between money (M1 or M2) and output in the sense that the null of no cointegration cannot be rejected.

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Paper provided by Wilfrid Laurier University, Department of Economics in its series Working Papers with number 97-1.

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Length: 28 pages
Date of creation: 1997
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:wlu:wpaper:97-1
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  1. Benjamin M. Friedman & Kenneth N. Kuttner, 1991. "Another Look at the Evidence on Money-Income Causality," NBER Working Papers 3856, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  2. Finn E. Kydland & Edward C. Prescott, 1990. "Business cycles: real facts and a monetary myth," Quarterly Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis, issue Spr, pages 3-18.
  3. Franses, Philip Hans & Hylleberg, Svend & Lee, Hahn S., 1995. "Spurious deterministic seasonality," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 48(3-4), pages 249-256, June.
  4. Friedman, Benjamin M & Kuttner, Kenneth N, 1992. "Money, Income, Prices, and Interest Rates," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 82(3), pages 472-92, June.
  5. Engle, R. F. & Granger, C. W. J. & Hylleberg, S. & Lee, H. S., 1993. "The Japanese consumption function," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 55(1-2), pages 275-298.
  6. Joseph Beaulieu, J. & Miron, Jeffrey A., 1993. "Seasonal unit roots in aggregate U.S. data," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 55(1-2), pages 305-328.
  7. Granger, C. W. J. & Siklos, Pierre L., 1995. "Systematic sampling, temporal aggregation, seasonal adjustment, and cointegration theory and evidence," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 66(1-2), pages 357-369.
  8. Hylleberg, S. & Engle, R.F. & Granger, C.W.J. & Yoo, B.S., 1988. "Seasonal, Integration And Cointegration," Papers 6-88-2, Pennsylvania State - Department of Economics.
  9. Ghysels, E. & Perron, P., 1990. "The Effect Of Seasonal Adjustment Filters On Tests For A Unit Root," Papers 355, Princeton, Department of Economics - Econometric Research Program.
  10. Engle, R. F. & Granger, C. W. J. & Hallman, J. J., 1989. "Merging short-and long-run forecasts : An application of seasonal cointegration to monthly electricity sales forecasting," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 40(1), pages 45-62, January.
  11. Robert B. Barsky & Jeffrey A. Miron, 1988. "The Seasonal Cycle and the Business Cycle," NBER Working Papers 2688, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  12. Sims, Christopher A, 1972. "Money, Income, and Causality," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 62(4), pages 540-52, September.
  13. Ghysels, Eric & Lee, Hahn S. & Noh, Jaesum, 1994. "Testing for unit roots in seasonal time series : Some theoretical extensions and a Monte Carlo investigation," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 62(2), pages 415-442, June.
  14. Christopher A. Sims, 1980. "Comparison of Interwar and Postwar Business Cycles: Monetarism Reconsidered," NBER Working Papers 0430, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  15. Gonzalo, J. & Granger, C., 1992. "Estimation of Common Long-Memory Components in Cointegrated Systems," Papers 4, Boston University - Department of Economics.
  16. Stock, James H. & Watson, Mark W., 1989. "Interpreting the evidence on money-income causality," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 40(1), pages 161-181, January.
  17. Franses, Philip Hans & Kunst, Robert M., 1995. "On the role of seasonal intercepts in seasonal cointegration," Economics Series 15, Institute for Advanced Studies.
  18. Lee, Hahn S. & Siklos, Pierre L., 1995. "A note on the critical values for the maximum likelihood (seasonal) cointegration tests," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 49(2), pages 137-145, August.
  19. Johansen, Soren, 1991. "Estimation and Hypothesis Testing of Cointegration Vectors in Gaussian Vector Autoregressive Models," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 59(6), pages 1551-80, November.
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  22. Johansen, Soren, 1988. "Statistical analysis of cointegration vectors," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 12(2-3), pages 231-254.
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