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Financial constraints, uses of funds, and firm growth : an international comparison

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  • Demirguc-Kunt, Asli
  • Maksimovic, Vojislav

Abstract

The authors focus on two issues. First they examine whether firms in different countries finance long-term and short term investment similarly. Second, they investigate whether differences in financial systems and legal institutions across countries are reflected in the ability of firms to grow faster than they might have by relying on their internal resources or short term borrowing. Across their sample they find: a) positive correlations between investment in plant and equipment and retained earnings; b) negative correlations between investment in plant and equipment and external financing; c) negative correlations between investment in short-term assets and retained earnings; and d) positive correlations between investments in short term assets and external financing. These findings suggest that financial markets and intermediaries have a comparative advantage in funding short-term investment. For each firm they estimate a predicted growth rate if it does not rely on long-term external financing. They show that the proportion of firms that grow faster than the predicted rate in each country is associated with specific features of the legal system, financial markets, and institutions. An active stock market and high scores on an index of respect for legal norms are associated with faster than predicted rates of firm growth. They present evidence that the law-and-order index measures the ability of creditors and debtors to enter into long-term contracts. Government subsidies to industry do not increase the proportion of firms growing faster than predicted.

Suggested Citation

  • Demirguc-Kunt, Asli & Maksimovic, Vojislav, 1996. "Financial constraints, uses of funds, and firm growth : an international comparison," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1671, The World Bank.
  • Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:1671
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Tomas Meluzin & Marek Zinecker, 2016. "Trends In Ipos: The Evidence From Cee Capital Markets," Equilibrium. Quarterly Journal of Economics and Economic Policy, Institute of Economic Research, vol. 11(2), pages 327-341, June.
    2. Ross Levine & Norman Loayza & Thorsten Beck, 2002. "Financial Intermediation and Growth: Causality and Causes," Central Banking, Analysis, and Economic Policies Book Series,in: Leonardo Hernández & Klaus Schmidt-Hebbel & Norman Loayza (Series Editor) & Klaus Schmidt-Hebbel (Se (ed.), Banking, Financial Integration, and International Crises, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 2, pages 031-084 Central Bank of Chile.
    3. Constanza Martínez Ventura, 2005. "Una revisión empírica sobre los determinantes del margen de intermediación en Colombia, 1989-2003," Ensayos sobre Política Económica, Banco de la Republica de Colombia, vol. 23(48), pages 118-183, Junio.
    4. Basab Dasupta, 2005. "Endogenous Growth in the Presence of Informal Credit Markets: A Comparative Analysis Between Credit Rationing and Self-Revelation Regimes," Working papers 2005-18, University of Connecticut, Department of Economics.
    5. Rajan, Raghuram G & Zingales, Luigi, 1998. "Financial Dependence and Growth," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 88(3), pages 559-586, June.
    6. Riccardo LUCCHETTI & Luca PAPI & Alberto ZAZZARO, 1999. "Efficienza del sistema bancario e crescita economica nelle regioni italiane," Working Papers 121, Universita' Politecnica delle Marche (I), Dipartimento di Scienze Economiche e Sociali.
    7. Naoko Kojo, 2000. "Bangladesh : Financial Sector Distress and Lost Economic Growth," World Bank Other Operational Studies 15476, The World Bank.
    8. Levine, Ross & Zervos, Sara, 1998. "Capital Control Liberalization and Stock Market Development," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 26(7), pages 1169-1183, July.
    9. Alba, Pedro & Claessens, Stijn & Djankov, Simeon, 1998. "Thailand's corporate financing and governance structures," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2003, The World Bank.
    10. Constanza Martínez Ventura, 2005. "Una Revisión Empírica Sobre Los Determinantes Del Margen De Intermediación En Colombia, 1989-2003," ENSAYOS SOBRE POLÍTICA ECONÓMICA, BANCO DE LA REPÚBLICA - ESPE, vol. 23(48), pages 118-183, June.
    11. Caprio, Gerard, Jr & Demirguc-Kunt, Asli, 1998. "The Role of Long-Term Finance: Theory and Evidence," World Bank Research Observer, World Bank Group, vol. 13(2), pages 171-189, August.
    12. AL-ZUBI, Khaled & AL-RJOUB,Samer & ABU-MHAREB,E, 2006. "Financial Development And Economic Growth: A New Empirical Evidence From The Mena Countries, 1989-2001," Applied Econometrics and International Development, Euro-American Association of Economic Development, vol. 6(3).
    13. Lucchetti, Riccardo & Papi, Luca & Zazzaro, Alberto, 2001. "Banks' Inefficiency and Economic Growth: A Micro-Macro Approach," Scottish Journal of Political Economy, Scottish Economic Society, vol. 48(4), pages 400-424, September.
    14. Ross Levine, 1997. "Napoleon, Bourses, and Growth in Latin America," IDB Publications (Working Papers) 6093, Inter-American Development Bank.
    15. Levine, Ross & Zervos, Sara, 1998. "Stock Markets, Banks, and Economic Growth," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 88(3), pages 537-558, June.
    16. Yohane Khamfula, 2005. "African capital markets and real sector investment," Journal of International Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 17(4), pages 511-525.
    17. Zbigniew Kominek, 2004. "Stock markets and industry growth: an Eastern European perspective," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 36(10), pages 1025-1030.
    18. Batra, Geeta & Mahmood, Syed, 2003. "Direct support to private firms - evidence on effectiveness," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3170, The World Bank.
    19. Felipe Balmaceda & Ronald Fischer, 2010. "Economic performance, creditor protection, and labour inflexibility," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 62(3), pages 553-577, July.
    20. Castro, Fernanda & Kalatzis, Aquiles E.G. & Martins-Filho, Carlos, 2015. "Financing in an emerging economy: Does financial development or financial structure matter?," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 23(C), pages 96-123.
    21. A. Arrighetti & A. Ninni, 2009. "Firm size and growth opportunities: a survey," Economics Department Working Papers 2009-EP05, Department of Economics, Parma University (Italy).

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