IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/pre/wpaper/201458.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Persistence in Precious Metal Prices: A Fractional Integration Approach with Structural Breaks

Author

Listed:
  • Luis A.Gil-Alana

    () (University of Navarra, Faculty of Economics and NCID)

  • Shinhye Chang

    () (Department of Economics, University of Pretoria)

  • Mehmet Balcilar

    () (Department of Economics, Eastern Mediterranean University, Famagusta, Northern Cyprus , via Mersin 10,Turkey; Department of Economics, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, 0002, South Africa.)

  • Goodness C. Aye

    () (Department of Economics, University of Pretoria)

  • Rangan Gupta

    () (Department of Economics, University of Pretoria)

Abstract

This paper analyses the statistical properties of five major precious metal prices (gold, silver, rhodium, palladium and platinum) based the fractional integration modelling framework while identifying structural breaks. We use monthly data from 1972:1 to 2013:12. Our results indicate orders of integration that are equal to or greater than 1 (long memory) in all cases except for silver and palladium where we find strong evidence of mean reversion with a parametric and semiparametric method, respectively. Given some inconsistencies between the parametric and semiparametric results, we suspect the possibility of structural breaks and our results show evidence of structural breaks in almost all cases except palladium. However, after accounting for structural breaks, we find evidence of increase in the degree of persistence across time in the majority of cases. This implies that in general, shocks to these precious metals will be permanent requiring strong policy measures to return the series to their equilibrium levels in the event of negative shocks.

Suggested Citation

  • Luis A.Gil-Alana & Shinhye Chang & Mehmet Balcilar & Goodness C. Aye & Rangan Gupta, 2014. "Persistence in Precious Metal Prices: A Fractional Integration Approach with Structural Breaks," Working Papers 201458, University of Pretoria, Department of Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:pre:wpaper:201458
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    To our knowledge, this item is not available for download. To find whether it is available, there are three options:
    1. Check below whether another version of this item is available online.
    2. Check on the provider's web page whether it is in fact available.
    3. Perform a search for a similarly titled item that would be available.

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Dirk G. Baur & Brian M. Lucey, 2010. "Is Gold a Hedge or a Safe Haven? An Analysis of Stocks, Bonds and Gold," The Financial Review, Eastern Finance Association, vol. 45(2), pages 217-229, May.
    2. Carol Alexander & Michael Barrow, 1994. "Seasonality and Cointegration of Regional House Prices in the UK," Urban Studies, Urban Studies Journal Limited, vol. 31(10), pages 1667-1689, December.
    3. Browne, Frank & Cronin, David, 2010. "Commodity prices, money and inflation," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 62(4), pages 331-345, July.
    4. Hassler, Uwe & Wolters, Jurgen, 1995. "Long Memory in Inflation Rates: International Evidence," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 13(1), pages 37-45, January.
    5. Hammoudeh, Shawkat M. & Yuan, Yuan & McAleer, Michael & Thompson, Mark A., 2010. "Precious metals-exchange rate volatility transmissions and hedging strategies," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 19(4), pages 633-647, October.
    6. Lee, Junsoo & List, John A. & Strazicich, Mark C., 2006. "Non-renewable resource prices: Deterministic or stochastic trends?," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 51(3), pages 354-370, May.
    7. Kapetanios, George & Shin, Yongcheol & Snell, Andy, 2003. "Testing for a unit root in the nonlinear STAR framework," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 112(2), pages 359-379, February.
    8. Diebold, Francis X. & Rudebusch, Glenn D., 1991. "On the power of Dickey-Fuller tests against fractional alternatives," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 35(2), pages 155-160, February.
    9. Kwiatkowski, Denis & Phillips, Peter C. B. & Schmidt, Peter & Shin, Yongcheol, 1992. "Testing the null hypothesis of stationarity against the alternative of a unit root : How sure are we that economic time series have a unit root?," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 54(1-3), pages 159-178.
    10. Junsoo Lee & Mark C. Strazicich, 2013. "Minimum LM unit root test with one structural break," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 33(4), pages 2483-2492.
    11. Radetzki, Marian, 1989. "Precious metals : The fundamental determinants of their price behaviour," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 15(3), pages 194-208, September.
    12. Caporale, Guglielmo Maria & Pittis, Nikitas, 1999. "Unit Root Testing Using Covariates: Some Theory and Evidence," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 61(4), pages 583-595, November.
    13. Zivot, Eric & Andrews, Donald W K, 2002. "Further Evidence on the Great Crash, the Oil-Price Shock, and the Unit-Root Hypothesis," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 20(1), pages 25-44, January.
    14. Brunetti, Celso & Gilbert, Christopher L., 1995. "Metals price volatility, 1972-1995," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 21(4), pages 237-254, December.
    15. Abbott, Philip C. & Hurt, Christopher & Tyner, Wallace E., 2009. "What's Driving Food Prices? March 2009 Update," Issue Reports 48495, Farm Foundation.
    16. Jushan Bai & Pierre Perron, 1998. "Estimating and Testing Linear Models with Multiple Structural Changes," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 66(1), pages 47-78, January.
    17. Angus Deaton & Guy Laroque, 1992. "On the Behaviour of Commodity Prices," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 59(1), pages 1-23.
    18. Diebold, Francis X. & Inoue, Atsushi, 2001. "Long memory and regime switching," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 105(1), pages 131-159, November.
    19. Soytas, Ugur & Sari, Ramazan & Hammoudeh, Shawkat & Hacihasanoglu, Erk, 2009. "World oil prices, precious metal prices and macroeconomy in Turkey," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(12), pages 5557-5566, December.
    20. Lescaroux, François, 2009. "On the excess co-movement of commodity prices--A note about the role of fundamental factors in short-run dynamics," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(10), pages 3906-3913, October.
    21. Arouri, Mohamed El Hedi & Hammoudeh, Shawkat & Lahiani, Amine & Nguyen, Duc Khuong, 2012. "Long memory and structural breaks in modeling the return and volatility dynamics of precious metals," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 52(2), pages 207-218.
    22. Robin L. Lumsdaine & David H. Papell, 1997. "Multiple Trend Breaks And The Unit-Root Hypothesis," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 79(2), pages 212-218, May.
    23. Gil-Alana, Luis A. & Gupta, Rangan, 2014. "Persistence and cycles in historical oil price data," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 45(C), pages 511-516.
    24. Elliott, Graham & Rothenberg, Thomas J & Stock, James H, 1996. "Efficient Tests for an Autoregressive Unit Root," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 64(4), pages 813-836, July.
    25. Adnen Ben Nasr & Ahdi Noomen Ajmi & Rangan Gupta, 2014. "Modelling the volatility of the Dow Jones Islamic Market World Index using a fractionally integrated time-varying GARCH (FITVGARCH) model," Applied Financial Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 24(14), pages 993-1004, July.
    26. Phillips, P C B, 1987. "Time Series Regression with a Unit Root," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 55(2), pages 277-301, March.
    27. Paresh Kumar Narayan & Stephan Popp, 2010. "A new unit root test with two structural breaks in level and slope at unknown time," Journal of Applied Statistics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 37(9), pages 1425-1438.
    28. Akram, Q. Farooq, 2009. "Commodity prices, interest rates and the dollar," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(6), pages 838-851, November.
    29. Luis A. Gil‐Alana, 2008. "Fractional integration and structural breaks at unknown periods of time," Journal of Time Series Analysis, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 29(1), pages 163-185, January.
    30. Agnolucci, Paolo, 2009. "Volatility in crude oil futures: A comparison of the predictive ability of GARCH and implied volatility models," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(2), pages 316-321, March.
    31. Heemskerk, Marieke, 2001. "Do international commodity prices drive natural resource booms? An empirical analysis of small-scale gold mining in Suriname," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 39(2), pages 295-308, November.
    32. Thomas Mikosch & Cătălin Stărică, 2004. "Nonstationarities in Financial Time Series, the Long-Range Dependence, and the IGARCH Effects," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 86(1), pages 378-390, February.
    33. Ang, Andrew & Bekaert, Geert, 2002. "Regime Switches in Interest Rates," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 20(2), pages 163-182, April.
    34. Junsoo Lee & Mark C. Strazicich, 2003. "Minimum Lagrange Multiplier Unit Root Test with Two Structural Breaks," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 85(4), pages 1082-1089, November.
    35. Hansen, Bruce E., 1995. "Rethinking the Univariate Approach to Unit Root Testing: Using Covariates to Increase Power," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 11(5), pages 1148-1171, October.
    36. Uwe Hassler & Barbara Meller, 2014. "Detecting multiple breaks in long memory the case of U.S. inflation," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 46(2), pages 653-680, March.
    37. Fernandez, Viviana, 2008. "The war on terror and its impact on the long-term volatility of financial markets," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 17(1), pages 1-26.
    38. Serena Ng & Pierre Perron, 2001. "LAG Length Selection and the Construction of Unit Root Tests with Good Size and Power," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 69(6), pages 1519-1554, November.
    39. Batten, Jonathan A. & Ciner, Cetin & Lucey, Brian M., 2010. "The macroeconomic determinants of volatility in precious metals markets," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(2), pages 65-71, June.
    40. Berna Kirkulak Uludag & Zorikto Lkhamazhapov, 2014. "Long memory and structural breaks in the returns and volatility of gold: evidence from Turkey," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 46(31), pages 3777-3787, November.
    41. Lee, Dongin & Schmidt, Peter, 1996. "On the power of the KPSS test of stationarity against fractionally-integrated alternatives," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 73(1), pages 285-302, July.
    42. Ewing, Bradley T. & Malik, Farooq, 2013. "Volatility transmission between gold and oil futures under structural breaks," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 25(C), pages 113-121.
    43. Bierens, Herman J., 1997. "Testing the unit root with drift hypothesis against nonlinear trend stationarity, with an application to the US price level and interest rate," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 81(1), pages 29-64, November.
    44. Robert S. Pindyck, 2004. "Volatility and commodity price dynamics," Journal of Futures Markets, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 24(11), pages 1029-1047, November.
    45. Stock, James H & Watson, Mark W, 1996. "Evidence on Structural Instability in Macroeconomic Time Series Relations," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 14(1), pages 11-30, January.
    46. Luis A. Gil-Alana & Goodness C. Aye & Rangan Gupta, 2012. "Testing for Persistence with Breaks and Outliers in South African House Prices," Working Papers 201233, University of Pretoria, Department of Economics.
    47. Phillips, P C B, 1987. "Time Series Regression with a Unit Root," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 55(2), pages 277-301, March.
    48. Hammoudeh, Shawkat & Yuan, Yuan, 2008. "Metal volatility in presence of oil and interest rate shocks," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 30(2), pages 606-620, March.
    49. Fama, Eugene F & French, Kenneth R, 1988. " Business Cycles and the Behavior of Metals Prices," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 43(5), pages 1075-1093, December.
    50. Sadorsky, Perry, 2006. "Modeling and forecasting petroleum futures volatility," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 28(4), pages 467-488, July.
    51. Jun Cai & Yan‐Leung Cheung & Michael C. S. Wong, 2001. "What moves the gold market?," Journal of Futures Markets, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 21(3), pages 257-278, March.
    52. Calvo-Gonzalez, Oscar & Shankar, Rashmi & Trezzi, Riccardo, 2010. "Are commodity prices more volatile now ? a long-run perspective," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5460, The World Bank.
    53. Pesaran, M. Hashem & Timmermann, Allan, 2004. "How costly is it to ignore breaks when forecasting the direction of a time series?," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 20(3), pages 411-425.
    54. Demetrescu, Matei & Kuzin, Vladimir & Hassler, Uwe, 2008. "Long Memory Testing In The Time Domain," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 24(1), pages 176-215, February.
    55. Christie-David, Rohan & Chaudhry, Mukesh & Koch, Timothy W., 2000. "Do macroeconomics news releases affect gold and silver prices?," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 52(5), pages 405-421.
    56. Cheung, Yin-Wong & Lai, Kon S, 1993. "Do Gold Market Returns Have Long Memory?," The Financial Review, Eastern Finance Association, vol. 28(2), pages 181-202, May.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Gil-Alana, Luis A. & Aye, Goodness C. & Gupta, Rangan, 2015. "Trends and cycles in historical gold and silver prices," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 58(C), pages 98-109.
    2. Chikashi Tsuji, 2018. "Structural Breaks and Volatility Persistence of Stock Returns: Evidence from the US and UK Equity Markets," Applied Economics and Finance, Redfame publishing, vol. 5(6), pages 76-83, November.
    3. Liu, Guo-Dong & Su, Chi-Wei, 2019. "The dynamic causality between gold and silver prices in China market: A rolling window bootstrap approach," Finance Research Letters, Elsevier, vol. 28(C), pages 101-106.
    4. Adewuyi, Adeolu O. & Wahab, Bashir A. & Adeboye, Olusegun S., 2020. "Stationarity of prices of precious and industrial metals using recent unit root methods: Implications for markets’ efficiency," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 65(C).
    5. Gil-Alana, Luis A. & Monge, Manuel, 2019. "Lithium: Production and estimated consumption. Evidence of persistence," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 60(C), pages 198-202.
    6. Cunado, Juncal & Gil-Alana, Luis A. & Gupta, Rangan, 2019. "Persistence in trends and cycles of gold and silver prices: Evidence from historical data," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 514(C), pages 345-354.
    7. Yong Jiang & Yi-Shuai Ren & Chao-Qun Ma & Jiang-Long Liu & Basil Sharp, 2018. "Does the price of strategic commodities respond to U.S. Partisan Conflict?," Papers 1810.08396, arXiv.org, revised Feb 2020.
    8. Kirkulak-Uludag, Berna & Lkhamazhapov, Zorikto, 2016. "The volatility dynamics of spot and futures gold prices: Evidence from Russia," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 38(C), pages 474-484.
    9. Naeem, Muhammad & Tiwari, Aviral Kumar & Mubashra, Sana & Shahbaz, Muhammad, 2019. "Modeling volatility of precious metals markets by using regime-switching GARCH models," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 64(C).
    10. Omane-Adjepong, Maurice & Boako, Gideon, 2017. "Long-range dependence in returns and volatility of global gold market amid financial crises," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 472(C), pages 188-202.
    11. An, Pengli & Li, Huajiao & Zhou, Jinsheng & Li, Yang & Sun, Bowen & Guo, Sui & Qi, Yajie, 2020. "Volatility spillover of energy stocks in different periods and clusters based on structural break recognition and network method," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 191(C).
    12. Bravo Caro, José Manuel & Golpe, Antonio A. & Iglesias, Jesús & Vides, José Carlos, 2020. "A new way of measuring the WTI – Brent spread. Globalization, shock persistence and common trends," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 85(C).
    13. Mehmet Balcilar & Zeynel Abidin Ozdemir, 2018. "The volatility effect on precious metals prices in a stochastic volatility in mean model with time-varying parameters," Working Papers 15-34, Eastern Mediterranean University, Department of Economics.
    14. Vigne, Samuel A. & Lucey, Brian M. & O’Connor, Fergal A. & Yarovaya, Larisa, 2017. "The financial economics of white precious metals — A survey," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 52(C), pages 292-308.
    15. Gil-Alana, Luis A. & Cunado, Juncal & Gupta, Rangan, 2017. "Evidence of persistence in U.S. short and long-term interest rates," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 39(5), pages 775-789.
    16. Wen, Fenghua & Gong, Xu & Cai, Shenghua, 2016. "Forecasting the volatility of crude oil futures using HAR-type models with structural breaks," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 59(C), pages 400-413.
    17. Balcilar, Mehmet & Ozdemir, Zeynel Abidin, 2019. "The volatility effect on precious metals price returns in a stochastic volatility in mean model with time-varying parameters," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 534(C).
    18. Krzysztof Drachal, 2018. "Some Novel Bayesian Model Combination Schemes: An Application to Commodities Prices," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 10(8), pages 1-27, August.
    19. Salisu, Afees A. & Ndako, Umar B. & Oloko, Tirimisiyu F., 2019. "Assessing the inflation hedging of gold and palladium in OECD countries," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 62(C), pages 357-377.
    20. Omane-Adjepong, Maurice & Boako, Gidoen & Alagidede, Paul, 2018. "Modelling heterogeneous speculation in Ghana’s foreign exchange market: Evidence from ARFIMA-FIGARCH and Semi-Parametric methods," MPRA Paper 86617, University Library of Munich, Germany.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Precious metal; unit root; long memory; structural break;

    JEL classification:

    • C22 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Time-Series Models; Dynamic Quantile Regressions; Dynamic Treatment Effect Models; Diffusion Processes
    • C14 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General - - - Semiparametric and Nonparametric Methods: General
    • O13 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Agriculture; Natural Resources; Environment; Other Primary Products

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:pre:wpaper:201458. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Rangan Gupta). General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/decupza.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.