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Inequality in the Literacy Levels in Pakistan: Existence and Changes Overtime


  • Husain, Fazal
  • Qasim, Muhammad Ali


This paper attempts to identify the areas that are still lagging behind other parts of the country in terms of literacy levels and are unable to play their role in the velopment of human capital of the country. The analyses indicate that more than 75 per cent of the districts in the country are under-represented in terms of literacy levels. This includes a large portion of Balochistan province. A large proportion of the iterate population is concentrated in the national and provincial capitals. In general, Sindh lags behind in case of rural areas and NWFP in case of females. The analyses also dicate that the areas that are backward in terms of economic development are also those with low levels of literacy. Balochistan is the province that needs the greatest attention. An encouraging sign is the general decline in disparities in literacy levels over time. Moreover, the least literate areas have shown a significant improvement over time. wever, a lot of work needs to be put into these areas for them to come at par with other parts of the country.

Suggested Citation

  • Husain, Fazal & Qasim, Muhammad Ali, 2005. "Inequality in the Literacy Levels in Pakistan: Existence and Changes Overtime," MPRA Paper 4166, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:4166

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Khwaja Sarmad & Fazal Husain & G. M. Zahid, 1989. "The Education Sector in Pakistan," PIDE-Working Papers 1989:156, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics.
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    More about this item


    Pakistan; Literacy Levels; Inequality; Representation; Growth; Ranking; Census;

    JEL classification:

    • J24 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Human Capital; Skills; Occupational Choice; Labor Productivity


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