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Financial burden of health care expenditures in Turkey: 2002-2003


  • Sulku, Seher Nur
  • Bernard, Didem M.


We examine whether and to what extent the health insurance system in Turkey provided adequate protection against high out of pocket expenditures in the period prior to “The Health Transformation Programme” (HTP) for the non elderly population. We measure health care burdens as the share of out of pocket health care expenditures within family income. We define high burdens as expenses above 10 and 20 percent of income. We find that 19 percent of the nonelderly population were living in families spending more than 10 percent of family income and that 14 percent of the nonelderly population were living in families spending more than 20 percent of family income on health care. Furthermore, the poor and those living in economically less developed regions had the greatest risk of high out of pocket burdens. More significantly, we find that the risk of high financial burdens varied by the type of insurance among the insured due to differences in benefits among the five separate public schemes that provided health insurance in the pre-reform period.

Suggested Citation

  • Sulku, Seher Nur & Bernard, Didem M., 2009. "Financial burden of health care expenditures in Turkey: 2002-2003," MPRA Paper 28968, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:28968

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Pavel Cizek & Wolfgang Karl Härdle & Rafal Weron, 2005. "Statistical Tools for Finance and Insurance," HSC Books, Hugo Steinhaus Center, Wroclaw University of Technology, number hsbook0501, June.
    2. Rafal Weron & Adam Misiorek, 2005. "Modeling and forecasting electricity loads: A comparison," Econometrics 0502004, EconWPA.
    3. Rafal Weron, 2006. "Modeling and Forecasting Electricity Loads and Prices: A Statistical Approach," HSC Books, Hugo Steinhaus Center, Wroclaw University of Technology, number hsbook0601, June.
    4. Krzysztof Burnecki & Rafal Weron, 2006. "Visualization tools for insurance risk processes," HSC Research Reports HSC/06/06, Hugo Steinhaus Center, Wroclaw University of Technology.
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    Cited by:

    1. Brown, Sarah & Hole, Arne Risa & Kilic, Dilek, 2014. "Out-of-pocket health care expenditure in Turkey: Analysis of the 2003–2008 Household Budget Surveys," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 41(C), pages 211-218.
    2. Dilek Basar & Sarah Brown & Arne Risa Hole, 2012. "Out-of-Pocket Health Care Expenditure in Turkey: Analysis of the Household Budget Surveys 2002-2008," Working Papers 2012020, The University of Sheffield, Department of Economics.
    3. Burcay Erus & Nazli Aktakke, 2012. "Impact of healthcare reforms on out-of-pocket health expenditures in Turkey for public insurees," The European Journal of Health Economics, Springer;Deutsche Gesellschaft für Gesundheitsökonomie (DGGÖ), vol. 13(3), pages 337-346, June.

    More about this item


    Out of Pocket Expenditures; Financial Burden; Health Care Reform; Turkey;

    JEL classification:

    • G22 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Insurance; Insurance Companies; Actuarial Studies
    • I18 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Health - - - Government Policy; Regulation; Public Health
    • I10 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Health - - - General


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