IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/pra/mprapa/24065.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Measures of schoolchild height and weight as indicators of community nutrition, lessons from Brazil

Author

Listed:
  • Calitri, Ronald

Abstract

Many countries measure the heights and weights of children in primary and secondary school. Individual children are usually monitored at school against growth charts, with appropriate referrals. Schoolchild data aggregated to the community, state or nation, and validated against population surveys, led to interventions such as school-based dietary supplementation and feeding, and community or national dietary education. Nutritional programs rarely target dietary needs of children 5-19. Influences on anthropometric nutritional status for children 0- 5 are widely examined in population surveys; but similar data are lacking for children 5-19, undesirably, as differences in growth and development from 5-19 are strongly associated with health in later life. Nutritional status of older children requires study in the context of household, community and national economic conditions. Many such details were surveyed by the Pesquisa de Orcamentos Familiares (POF), across the 27 provinces of Brazil, 2002-2003, conducted by the Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica (IBGE), a national agency publishing industrial activity, agricultural production, employment, prices, and GDP series. The POF sampled 48,470 households, and 178,375 persons, for household and social characteristics, anthropometrics, economic activity, sources of income, and detailed expenditures (for example 3,256 foods). Here, nutritional status of 50,237 persons aged 5-19 is estimated using WHO 2007 Reference Standards for age, sex, height, weight and BMI. Characteristics of students (public or private, age in grade) and children not enrolled in school, part and full-time employment, personal income and expenditure on food, entertainment and stimulants, were related to relative and seasonal differences in nutritional status. Child nutritional status also responded to household education, income, employment, spending (particularly on food), food consumption, adult and cohort anthropometrics, and community factors, such as urbanization and location. Outcomes and explanatory factors were mapped for spatial autocorrelation and tested for Granger causation over the survey period. Child nutritional status varied seasonally; annual school censuses do not model average nutritional status. Nutritional status of enrolled children incompletely modeled children not in school. Accordingly, continuing population surveys are necessary to monitor the nutritional status of all children 5-19. Variations in nutritional status of enrolled children were sensitive to economic data available at monthly or quarterly intervals in most places, such as local prices, economic activity and employment, suggesting these as factors in active policy. Despite its size, the POF sample was insufficient to very significantly model the responses of child nutritional status to local economic conditions. These are strong reasons to support the annual collection of height and weight for all schoolchildren, and to expand monitoring of the influence of community economic conditions on child nutritional status.

Suggested Citation

  • Calitri, Ronald, 2009. "Measures of schoolchild height and weight as indicators of community nutrition, lessons from Brazil," MPRA Paper 24065, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:24065
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/24065/1/MPRA_paper_24065.pdf
    File Function: original version
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Janet Currie & Mark Stabile, 2002. "Socioeconomic Status and Health: Why is the Relationship Stronger for Older Children?," NBER Working Papers 9098, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Schoolchild Nutritional Status; Educational Attainment; Community Nutrition; WHO Child Growth Reference; Brazil; Local Regression; Spatial Statistics; Granger Causation; Multilevel Analysis;

    JEL classification:

    • I0 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - General
    • C0 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - General
    • J0 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - General

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:24065. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Joachim Winter). General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/vfmunde.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.