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Climate Mitigation and Adaptation in Africa: Evidence from Patent Data

Author

Listed:
  • Ivan Haščič

    (OECD)

  • Jérôme Silva

    (OECD)

  • Nick Johnstone

    (OECD)

Abstract

This paper presents comparative data on innovation in selected climate change mitigation and adaptation technologies in the context of Africa. Such analysis informs policy aimed at encouraging international technology transfer and development of domestic innovation capacities. We present detailed analysis of the role of Africa in development of these technologies (invention), and then move on to examine Africa as a technology market (as reflected in patenting). In addition, we briefly touch upon the question of cross-border technology development (co-invention) in Africa. Despite Africa’s generally low volume of inventive activity in these fields in comparison with other countries, inventive activity is disproportionately directed towards mitigation and adaptation technologies. In addition, the rate of international co-invention for most mitigation and adaptation technologies is much higher in Africa than in the rest of the world. And finally, rates of protection of climate technologies at African intellectual property offices are high relative to other technologies. Nonetheless, it must be emphasized that a relatively small number of inventions are protected in Africa, providing evidence that IP is not a barrier to technology transfer and diffusion. Ce rapport livre des données comparatives sur l’innovation concernant certaines technologies d’atténuation du changement climatique et d’adaptation à ses effets dans le contexte de l’Afrique. L’analyse de ces données éclaire l’élaboration des politiques visant à encourager les transferts internationaux de technologies et le renforcement des capacités nationales d’innovation. Nous proposons une analyse détaillée du rôle de l’Afrique dans la mise au point de ces technologies (invention), avant d’étudier le marché technologique qu’elle représente (à l’aune des dépôts de brevets). Nous abordons en outre brièvement la question du développement de technologies au niveau international (co-invention) en Afrique. Si l’activité inventive des pays africains dans ces domaines est généralement faible par rapport à d’autres pays, les technologies d’atténuation et d’adaptation y tiennent toutefois une place primordiale. Qui plus est, la co-invention internationale concernant la plupart de ces technologies est bien plus fréquente en Afrique que dans le reste du monde. Enfin, les offices africains de la propriété intellectuelle délivrent davantage de brevets aux technologies climatiques qu’aux autres technologies. Soulignons cependant que les inventions protégées sont relativement peu nombreuses en Afrique, et que la propriété intellectuelle n’y dresse donc pas d’obstacle au transfert et à la diffusion des technologies

Suggested Citation

  • Ivan Haščič & Jérôme Silva & Nick Johnstone, 2012. "Climate Mitigation and Adaptation in Africa: Evidence from Patent Data," OECD Environment Working Papers 50, OECD Publishing.
  • Handle: RePEc:oec:envaaa:50-en
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    File URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5k8zng5smxjg-en
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Matthieu Glachant, 2013. "Greening Global Value Chains: Innovation and the International Diffusion of Technologies and Knowledge," OECD Green Growth Papers 2013/5, OECD Publishing.
    2. Mare Sarr & Joëlle Noailly, 2017. "Innovation, Diffusion, Growth and the Environment: Taking Stock and Charting New Directions," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 66(3), pages 393-407, March.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    brevets; climate policy; diffusion des technologies; innovation; innovation; patents; politique climatique; technology diffusion; technology transfer; transferts de technologie;

    JEL classification:

    • O31 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Innovation and Invention: Processes and Incentives
    • O33 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Technological Change: Choices and Consequences; Diffusion Processes
    • O38 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Government Policy
    • O55 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economywide Country Studies - - - Africa
    • Q42 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Energy - - - Alternative Energy Sources
    • Q48 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Energy - - - Government Policy
    • Q54 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Climate; Natural Disasters and their Management; Global Warming
    • Q55 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Environmental Economics: Technological Innovation
    • Q56 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Environment and Development; Environment and Trade; Sustainability; Environmental Accounts and Accounting; Environmental Equity; Population Growth
    • Q58 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Environmental Economics: Government Policy

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