IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/nbr/nberwo/6590.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Managing Annual Accounting Reports to Avoid State Taxes: An Analysis of Property-Casualty Insurers

Author

Listed:
  • Kathy R. Petroni
  • Douglas A. Shackelford

Abstract

We hypothesize that, in their annual accounting reports, insurers allocate premiums and losses from multistate policies to reduce total state taxes. To test this prediction, we examine firm-level data, collected from the publicly-available statutory reports used to compute tax bases and filed with each state government. If insurers manage allocations to avoid taxes, we anticipate an inverse relation between the tax rate and the premium-to-loss ratio, which is the industry's standard measure of the price of a unit of coverage. Firm-specific prices are computed using premium and loss information from the annual regulatory reports filed with each state in which an insurer underwrites. Primary analysis is conducted on 12,573 insurer-state observations from 1993. We find the premium-to-loss ratio is decreasing in state tax rates, consistent with multistate insurers managing their annual accounting reports to shift premiums (losses) to more (less) favorably taxed states.

Suggested Citation

  • Kathy R. Petroni & Douglas A. Shackelford, 1998. "Managing Annual Accounting Reports to Avoid State Taxes: An Analysis of Property-Casualty Insurers," NBER Working Papers 6590, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:6590
    Note: PE
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.nber.org/papers/w6590.pdf
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Collins, Julie H. & Geisler, Greg G. & Shackelford, Douglas A., 1997. "The effects of taxes, regulation, earnings, and organizational form on life insurers' investment portfolio realizations," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 24(3), pages 337-361, December.
    2. repec:bla:joares:v:25:y:1987:i:1:p:1-48 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. Collins, Julie H. & Shackelford, Douglas A., 1997. "Global organizations and taxes: An analysis of the dividend, interest, royalty, and management fee payments between U.S. multinationals' foreign affiliates," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 24(2), pages 151-173, December.
    4. Goodspeed, T-J & White, A-D, 1996. "International taxation," Papers 96-11, Wellesley College - Department of Economics.
    5. Froot, Kenneth A., 1989. "Consistent Covariance Matrix Estimation with Cross-Sectional Dependence and Heteroskedasticity in Financial Data," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 24(03), pages 333-355, September.
    6. White, Halbert, 1980. "A Heteroskedasticity-Consistent Covariance Matrix Estimator and a Direct Test for Heteroskedasticity," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 48(4), pages 817-838, May.
    7. Shackelford, Douglas A., 1991. "The market for tax benefits : Evidence from leveraged ESOPs," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 14(2), pages 117-145, June.
    8. Harry Grubert & Timothy Goodspeed & Deborah L. Swenson, 1993. "Explaining the Low Taxable Income of Foreign-Controlled Companies in the United States," NBER Chapters,in: Studies in International Taxation, pages 237-276 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    9. Scholes, Myron S & Wilson, G Peter & Wolfson, Mark A, 1990. "Tax Planning, Regulatory Capital Planning, and Financial Reporting Strategy for Commercial Banks," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 3(4), pages 625-650.
    10. Mayers, David & Smith, Clifford W, Jr, 1988. "Ownership Structure across Lines of Property-Casualty Insurance," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 31(2), pages 351-378, October.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Margaret Lamb & Andrew Lymer, 1999. "Taxation research in an accounting context: future prospects and interdisciplinary perspectives," European Accounting Review, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 8(4), pages 749-776.
    2. Inès Bouaziz Daoud & Mohamed Ali Omri, 2011. "Divergences comptabilité - fiscalité, gestion fiscale et gestion des résultats en Tunisie : les nouveaux défis," Post-Print hal-00646800, HAL.
    3. Ke, Bin & Petroni, Kathy R. & Shackelford, Douglas A., 2000. "The impact of state taxes on self-insurance," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 30(1), pages 99-122, August.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • H25 - Public Economics - - Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue - - - Business Taxes and Subsidies
    • H73 - Public Economics - - State and Local Government; Intergovernmental Relations - - - Interjurisdictional Differentials and Their Effects

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:6590. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: () or (Joanne Lustig). General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/nberrus.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.