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Are individual survey expectations internally consistent?

Author

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  • Maritta Paloviita

    () (Bank of Finland)

  • Matti Viren

    () (Bank of Finland, University of Turku)

Abstract

This paper studies professional forecasts on a micro level using three alternative data sets. The analysis is mainly based on the ECB Survey of Professional Forecasts for the euro area, but for comparison, Consensus Economics survey and the Survey of Professional Forecasts for the US are also investigated. We examine internal consistency of individual inflation and real GDP growth forecasts by estimating alternative specifications of the Phillips curve on a micro level. We also explore forecast uncertainty using two alternative measures, i.e. conventional standard deviation of individual point forecasts and the median values of individual forecasters’ uncertainty based on subjective probability distributions of survey respondents. Our analysis indicates that individual forecasters deviate systematically from each other. Moreover, inflation uncertainty is closely related to the output growth uncertainty. In forming expectations, individual forecasters seem to behave according to the hybrid specification of the New Keynesian Phillips curve. The results also indicate that inflation uncertainty has a negative impact on economic activity by increasing inflation and lowering the price sensitiveness of aggregate supply.

Suggested Citation

  • Maritta Paloviita & Matti Viren, 2013. "Are individual survey expectations internally consistent?," NBP Working Papers 140, Narodowy Bank Polski, Economic Research Department.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbp:nbpmis:140
    Note: ARE WE REALLY FORWARD-LOOKING? MEASURING AND TESTING EXPECTATIONS – CENTRAL BANK PERSPECTIVE, National Bank of Poland, 29-30 November, 2012 Warsaw
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Dopke, Jorg & Fritsche, Ulrich, 2006. "When do forecasters disagree? An assessment of German growth and inflation forecast dispersion," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 22(1), pages 125-135.
    2. Carlos Bowles & Roberta Friz & Veronique Genre & Geoff Kenny & Aidan Meyler & Tuomas Rautanen, 2007. "The ECB survey of professional forecasters (SPF) – A review after eight years’ experience," Occasional Paper Series 59, European Central Bank.
    3. Lucas, Robert E, Jr, 1973. "Some International Evidence on Output-Inflation Tradeoffs," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 63(3), pages 326-334, June.
    4. Tillmann, Peter, 2010. "The Fed's perceived Phillips curve: Evidence from individual FOMC forecasts," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 32(4), pages 1008-1013, December.
    5. Engelberg, Joseph & Manski, Charles F. & Williams, Jared, 2009. "Comparing the Point Predictions and Subjective Probability Distributions of Professional Forecasters," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 27, pages 30-41.
    6. Kortelainen, Mika & Paloviita, Maritta & Viren, Matti, 2011. "Observed inflation forecasts and the new Keynesian macro model," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 112(1), pages 88-90, July.
    7. Nicholas Bloom, 2009. "The Impact of Uncertainty Shocks," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 77(3), pages 623-685, May.
    8. Cristina Conflitti, 2012. "Measuring Uncertainty and Disagreement in the European Survey of Professional Forecasters," OECD Journal: Journal of Business Cycle Measurement and Analysis, OECD Publishing, Centre for International Research on Economic Tendency Surveys, vol. 2011(2), pages 69-103.
    9. Gianna Boero & Jeremy Smith & KennethF. Wallis, 2008. "Uncertainty and Disagreement in Economic Prediction: The Bank of England Survey of External Forecasters," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 118(530), pages 1107-1127, July.
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    12. Levi, Maurice D & Makin, John H, 1980. "Inflation Uncertainty and the Phillips Curve: Some Empirical Evidence," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 70(5), pages 1022-1027, December.
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    14. Klaus Adam & Mario Padula, 2011. "Inflation Dynamics And Subjective Expectations In The United States," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 49(1), pages 13-25, January.
    15. Carlos Bowles & Roberta Friz & Veronique Genre & Geoff Kenny & Aidan Meyler & Tuomas Rautanen, 2010. "An Evaluation of the Growth and Unemployment Forecasts in the ECB Survey of Professional Forecasters," OECD Journal: Journal of Business Cycle Measurement and Analysis, OECD Publishing, Centre for International Research on Economic Tendency Surveys, vol. 2010(2), pages 1-28.
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    Cited by:

    1. Paul Hubert & Becky Maule, 2016. "Policy and Macro Signals as Inputs to Inflation Expectation Formation," Documents de Travail de l'OFCE 2016-02, Observatoire Francais des Conjonctures Economiques (OFCE).
    2. Fuhrer, Jeffrey C., 2015. "Expectations as a source of macroeconomic persistence: an exploration of firms' and households' expectation formation," Working Papers 15-5, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Forecasting; Survey data; Expectations; Phillips curve;

    JEL classification:

    • C53 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric Modeling - - - Forecasting and Prediction Models; Simulation Methods
    • E37 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Prices, Business Fluctuations, and Cycles - - - Forecasting and Simulation: Models and Applications
    • E31 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Prices, Business Fluctuations, and Cycles - - - Price Level; Inflation; Deflation

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