IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this paper

The role of currency swaps in the domestic banking system and the functioning the swap market during the crisis


  • Judit Páles

    () (Magyar Nemzeti Bank (central bank of Hungary))

  • Zsolt Kuti

    () (Magyar Nemzeti Bank (central bank of Hungary))

  • Csaba Csávás

    () (Magyar Nemzeti Bank (central bank of Hungary))


The basic purpose of this study is to didactically demonstrate the factors shaping the currency swap stock of domestic banks prior to the crisis and to provide a descriptive analysis of how the structure and the functioning of the market changed during the crisis. The main conclusions of the study are as follows. In addition to the wide ranging applicability of the transaction, the rise in the currency swap stock of domestic credit institutions is also attributable to macroeconomic factors. The bulk of the exchange rate risk resulting from the high external borrowing requirement and rising external debt was carried by the domestic private sector, while the foreign sector shared a decreasing portion of the risk. The rapid increase in the swap stock was also due to the fact that the synthetic production of foreign currency funds with currency swaps was often more successful than the direct inflow of foreign currency funds. On the basis of the decomposition of the domestic banking system’s on-balance sheet foreign currency position, we can state that it increased mainly as a result of items that also increased the balance sheet total. Following the outbreak of the global financial crisis in the autumn of 2008, the conditions for ensuring foreign currency liquidity deteriorated significantly, which had a substantial effect on implied forint yields, and the turnover and structure of the swap market. While the total average turnover of the domestic FX swap market did not drop radically when the crisis was spreading, market liquidity did decline significantly for a few days and access to foreign currency liquidity became limited. The active role assumed by parent banks and shortening maturities contributed to moderating the decline in turnover. Anecdotal information relating to the tightening of counterparty limits vis-a-vis domestic banks is supported by the decline in the number of non-resident counterparties. The crisis also contributed to changes in the structure of the swap stock. The average remaining maturity of the gross stock began to decline directly after the Lehman bankruptcy, at the time of global dollar liquidity problems, followed by a rise starting from early 2009, principally owing to transactions concluded with parent banks. Domestic subsidiary banks managed to increase maturity primarily through cross-currency swap transactions concluded with intra-group counterparties, but non-group counterparties also concluded transactions with longer maturity with domestic banks.

Suggested Citation

  • Judit Páles & Zsolt Kuti & Csaba Csávás, 2011. "The role of currency swaps in the domestic banking system and the functioning the swap market during the crisis," MNB Occasional Papers 2011/90, Magyar Nemzeti Bank (Central Bank of Hungary).
  • Handle: RePEc:mnb:opaper:2011/90

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Szabolcs Szikszai & Tamás Badics & Csilla Raffai & Zsolt Stenger & András Tóthmihály, 2013. "Studies in Financial Systems No 8 Hungary," FESSUD studies fstudy08, Financialisation, Economy, Society & Sustainable Development (FESSUD) Project.
    2. Ãdám Banai & András Kollarik & András Szabó-Solticzky, 2014. "Identification of Systemically Important Banks Using Network Theory," Research in Economics and Business: Central and Eastern Europe, Tallinn School of Economics and Business Administration, Tallinn University of Technology, vol. 6(2).
    3. Ãdám Banai & András Kollarik & András Szabó-Solticzky, 2014. "The Network Topology of the Hungarian Short-Term Foreign Exchange Swap Market," Research in Economics and Business: Central and Eastern Europe, Tallinn School of Economics and Business Administration, Tallinn University of Technology, vol. 6(2).
    4. Ádám Balog & Orsolya Csortos & Ágnes Torös & Márton Zsigó, 2015. "Interaction between monetary and macroprudential policies in practice - a Hungarian example," BIS Papers chapters,in: Bank for International Settlements (ed.), What do new forms of finance mean for EM central banks?, volume 83, pages 159-180 Bank for International Settlements.
    5. Aron Gereben & Ferenc Karvalits & Zalan Kocsis, 2011. "Monetary policy challenges during the crisis in a small open dollarised economy: the case of Hungary," BIS Papers chapters,in: Bank for International Settlements (ed.), Capital flows, commodity price movements and foreign exchange intervention, volume 57, pages 179-188 Bank for International Settlements.
    6. Judit Temesváry, 2014. "Explaining the Differences between Local Currency versus FX-denominated Loans and Deposits in the Central-Eastern European Economies," IEHAS Discussion Papers 1405, Institute of Economics, Centre for Economic and Regional Studies, Hungarian Academy of Sciences.

    More about this item


    FX swap; currency swap; foreign currency based loan; crisis; counterparty limit; margin call; liquidity requirement;

    JEL classification:

    • E44 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Money and Interest Rates - - - Financial Markets and the Macroeconomy
    • F31 - International Economics - - International Finance - - - Foreign Exchange
    • F32 - International Economics - - International Finance - - - Current Account Adjustment; Short-term Capital Movements
    • F34 - International Economics - - International Finance - - - International Lending and Debt Problems

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:mnb:opaper:2011/90. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Lorant Kaszab). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    We have no references for this item. You can help adding them by using this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.