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Earnings Management to Exceed the Threshold: A Comparative Analysis of Consolidated and Parent-only Earnings


  • Akinobu Shuto

    (Research Institute for Economics & Business Administration (RIEB), Kobe University, Japan)


This paper examines whether consolidated earnings are managed to a greater extent than parent-only earnings or vice versa in an attempt to exceed the threshold in Japanese firms. The analysis reveals that earnings management to avoid earnings decreases is more pronounced in parent-only earnings for the period 1980-1999. Further, it reveals that the management of parent-only earnings has been less pervasive following the introduction of the new consolidated reporting system in March 2000. In addition, this paper provides evidence suggesting that earnings management in consolidated earnings increased after March 2000. These results indicate the possibility that the new consolidated reporting system and principles reduce the incentive to manage parent-only earnings and increase that to manage consolidated earnings.

Suggested Citation

  • Akinobu Shuto, 2005. "Earnings Management to Exceed the Threshold: A Comparative Analysis of Consolidated and Parent-only Earnings," Discussion Paper Series 224, Research Institute for Economics & Business Administration, Kobe University, revised Jul 2008.
  • Handle: RePEc:kob:dpaper:224

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Hall, C. & Hamao, Y. & Harris, T.S., 1992. "A Comparison of relations Between Security Market Prices, Returns and Accounting Measures in Japan and the Unites States," Papers 92-36, Columbia - Graduate School of Business.
    2. Kang, Jun-Koo & Shivdasani, Anil, 1995. "Firm performance, corporate governance, and top executive turnover in Japan," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 38(1), pages 29-58, May.
    3. Kaplan, Steven N, 1994. "Top Executive Rewards and Firm Performance: A Comparison of Japan and the United States," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 102(3), pages 510-546, June.
    4. Kato, Takao, 1997. "Chief executive compensation and corporate groups in Japan: New evidence from micro data," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 15(4), pages 455-467, July.
    5. Cindy Durtschi & Peter Easton, 2005. "Earnings Management? The Shapes of the Frequency Distributions of Earnings Metrics Are Not Evidence Ipso Facto," Journal of Accounting Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 43(4), pages 557-592, September.
    6. French, Kenneth R. & Poterba, James M., 1991. "Were Japanese stock prices too high?," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 29(2), pages 337-363, October.
    7. repec:bla:joares:v:29:y:1991:i:2:p:193-228 is not listed on IDEAS
    8. Burgstahler, David & Dichev, Ilia, 1997. "Earnings management to avoid earnings decreases and losses," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 24(1), pages 99-126, December.
    9. Degeorge, Francois & Patel, Jayendu & Zeckhauser, Richard, 1999. "Earnings Management to Exceed Thresholds," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 72(1), pages 1-33, January.
    10. Robert M. Conroy & Kenneth M. Eades & Robert S. Harris, 2000. "A Test of the Relative Pricing Effects of Dividends and Earnings: Evidence from Simultaneous Announcements in Japan," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 55(3), pages 1199-1227, June.
    11. Healy, Paul M., 1985. "The effect of bonus schemes on accounting decisions," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 7(1-3), pages 85-107, April.
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    Cited by:

    1. Keishi Fujiyama & Makoto Kuroki, 2017. "Employee Downsizing and Accounting Choices: Evidence from Japan," Discussion Paper Series DP2017-06, Research Institute for Economics & Business Administration, Kobe University, revised Sep 2017.
    2. Yim, Andrew, 2013. "Mixture and Continuous 'Discontinuity' Hypotheses: An Earnings Management Model with Auditor-Required Adjustment," MPRA Paper 44702, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    3. Akinobu Shuto & Takuya Iwasaki, 2013. "The Effect of Institutional Factors on Discontinuities in Earnings Distribution: Public Versus Private Firms in Japan," Discussion Paper Series DP2013-32, Research Institute for Economics & Business Administration, Kobe University, revised Jul 2014.
    4. Chen, Shaw K. & Lin, Bing-Xuan & Wang, Yaping & Wu, Liansheng, 2010. "The frequency and magnitude of earnings management: Time-series and multi-threshold comparisons," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 19(4), pages 671-685, October.

    More about this item


    Earnings management; Earnings distribution; Accounting regulation; Consolidated earnings; Parent-only earnings;

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