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Where Did All the Unemployed Go? Non-standard work in Germany after the Hartz reforms

Author

Listed:
  • Thomas Rothe

    (Institute for Employment Research (IAB))

  • Klaus Wälde

    (Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz)

Abstract

The number of unemployed workers in Germany decreased dramatically from its peak in February 2005 at over 5.2 million to 3.6 million by 2008. At the same time, employment increased by 1.2 million. Most theoretical and empirical analyses of this episode assume that a worker leaving unemployment moves into full employment. We ask where the unemployed actually went. Using and merging two large micro data sets, we account for the decrease of unemployment by computing inows and outows between unemployment and 16 other labour market states. Direct ows between unemployment and full employment contributed for only less than 9% to the decline in unemployment. By contrast, more than 37% of the unemployed workers ended up in non-standard work. About 13% participated in labour market policy programmes and 28% retired. Following the unemployment cohort of February 2005 over time conrms the order of magnitude of our ndings.

Suggested Citation

  • Thomas Rothe & Klaus Wälde, 2017. "Where Did All the Unemployed Go? Non-standard work in Germany after the Hartz reforms," Working Papers 1709, Gutenberg School of Management and Economics, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz.
  • Handle: RePEc:jgu:wpaper:1709
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    Cited by:

    1. Martin Biewen & Miriam Sturm, 2021. "Why a Labour Market Boom Does Not Necessarily Bring Down Inequality: Putting Together Germany’s Inequality Puzzle," SOEPpapers on Multidisciplinary Panel Data Research 1139, DIW Berlin, The German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP).
    2. Hochmuth, Brigitte & Kohlbrecher, Britta & Merkl, Christian & Gartner, Hermann, 2021. "Hartz IV and the decline of German unemployment: A macroeconomic evaluation," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 127(C).
    3. Maia Güell & Cristina Lafuente & Manuel Sánchez & Hélène Turon, 2022. "So different yet so alike: micro and macro labour market outcomes in Germany and Spain," SERIEs: Journal of the Spanish Economic Association, Springer;Spanish Economic Association, vol. 13(1), pages 147-169, May.
    4. Carrillo-Tudela, Carlos & Launov, Andrey & Robin, Jean-Marc, 2021. "The fall in german unemployment: A flow analysis," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 132(C).
    5. Schmöller, Michaela, 2019. "Stagnant Wages, Sectoral Misallocation and Slowing Productivity Growth," VfS Annual Conference 2019 (Leipzig): 30 Years after the Fall of the Berlin Wall - Democracy and Market Economy 203598, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
    6. Bradley, Jake & Kügler, Alice, 2019. "Labor market reforms: An evaluation of the Hartz policies in Germany," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 113(C), pages 108-135.
    7. Burda Michael C. & Seele Stefanie, 2017. "Das deutsche Arbeitsmarktwunder: Eine Bilanz," Perspektiven der Wirtschaftspolitik, De Gruyter, vol. 18(3), pages 179-204, October.
    8. Lea Immel, 2021. "The Impact of Labor Market Reforms on Income Inequality: Evidence from the German Hartz Reforms," ifo Working Paper Series 347, ifo Institute - Leibniz Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich.
    9. Martin Biewen & Miriam Sturm, 2022. "Why a labour market boom does not necessarily bring down inequality: putting together Germany's inequality puzzle," Fiscal Studies, John Wiley & Sons, vol. 43(2), pages 121-149, June.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    non-standard work; empirical labour market ows with many states Germany; labour market reform; Hartz reforms;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • J21 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Labor Force and Employment, Size, and Structure
    • J62 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers - - - Job, Occupational and Intergenerational Mobility; Promotion
    • J64 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers - - - Unemployment: Models, Duration, Incidence, and Job Search

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