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Schumpeterian Entrepreneurship in Europe Compared to Other Industrialized Regions

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  • Henrekson, Magnus

    () (Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN))

  • Sanandaji, Tino

    () (Institute for Economic and Business History Research (EHFF), Stockholm School of Economics)

Abstract

Cross-country comparisons of entrepreneurship are difficult due to the lack of standard empirical definitions of entrepreneurship. Measures focusing on small business activity and self-employment suggest that Europe has the same or higher rates of entrepreneurship than the U.S. and East Asia. However, most business activity is not entrepreneurial in the Schumpeterian sense. We rely on empirical measures that more closely tally Schumpeterian entrepreneurship: self-made dollar billionaires per capita who earned their wealth by creating firms, top global firms founded in recent decades, unicorn startups, and VC investment as a share of GDP. Western Europe is shown to underperform in all four measures of high-impact Schumpeterian entrepreneurship relative to the U.S. Once we account for Europe’s strong performance in technological innovation, an “entrepreneurship deficit” relative to East Asia also becomes apparent. This underperformance is missed by most standard measures. Finally, we also find that China performs surprisingly well in Schumpeterian entrepreneurship, especially compared to Eastern Europe.

Suggested Citation

  • Henrekson, Magnus & Sanandaji, Tino, 2017. "Schumpeterian Entrepreneurship in Europe Compared to Other Industrialized Regions," Working Paper Series 1170, Research Institute of Industrial Economics, revised 29 Jun 2018.
  • Handle: RePEc:hhs:iuiwop:1170
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Henrekson Magnus, 2017. "Taxation of Swedish Firm Owners: The Great Reversal from the 1970s to the 2010s," Nordic Tax Journal, Sciendo, vol. 2017(1), pages 26-46, January.
    2. André Stel & Serhiy Lyalkov & Ana Millán & José María Millán, 2019. "The moderating role of IPR on the relationship between country-level R&D and individual-level entrepreneurial performance," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 44(5), pages 1427-1450, October.
    3. Naudé, Wim & Nagler, Paula, 2017. "Technological Innovation and Inclusive Growth in Germany," IZA Discussion Papers 11194, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Billionaire entrepreneurs; Entrepreneurship; Innovation; Institutions; Regulation; Self-employment;

    JEL classification:

    • L50 - Industrial Organization - - Regulation and Industrial Policy - - - General
    • M13 - Business Administration and Business Economics; Marketing; Accounting; Personnel Economics - - Business Administration - - - New Firms; Startups
    • O31 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Innovation and Invention: Processes and Incentives
    • P14 - Economic Systems - - Capitalist Systems - - - Property Rights

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