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Long Term Contracts, Arbitrage, and Vertical Restraints

Author

Listed:
  • Ellingsen, Tore

    () (Dept. of Economics, Stockholm School of Economics)

Abstract

The paper argues that sellers sometimes impose exclusivity clauses on their buyers in order to prevent arbitrage between brands. In a duopoly model in which the sellers compete through fairly general long term contracts, it is shown that common agency is always allowed whenever reselling can be controlled directly, but that exclusive dealing is imposed otherwise. The model also offers a new rationale for ex post inefficient penalties for breach of contract. Equilibrium long term contracts are shown to reduce sellers'profits and to increase the buyers'surplus relative to the spot market level. exclusive dealing lowers overall welfare in this model. As an illustraiton, the theory is applied to the case of British brewers.

Suggested Citation

  • Ellingsen, Tore, 1995. "Long Term Contracts, Arbitrage, and Vertical Restraints," SSE/EFI Working Paper Series in Economics and Finance 58, Stockholm School of Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:hhs:hastef:0058
    as

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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. B. Douglas Bernheim & Michael D. Whinston, 1998. "Exclusive Dealing," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 106(1), pages 64-103, February.
    2. Besanko, David & Perry, Martin K., 1994. "Exclusive dealing in a spatial model of retail competition," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 12(3), pages 297-329, September.
    3. Rasmusen, Eric B & Ramseyer, J Mark & Wiley, John S, Jr, 1991. "Naked Exclusion," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 81(5), pages 1137-1145, December.
    4. Katz, Michael L., 1989. "Vertical contractual relations," Handbook of Industrial Organization,in: R. Schmalensee & R. Willig (ed.), Handbook of Industrial Organization, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 11, pages 655-721 Elsevier.
    5. David Martimort, 1996. "Exclusive Dealing, Common Agency, and Multiprincipals Incentive Theory," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 27(1), pages 1-19, Spring.
    6. Jean Tirole, 1988. "The Theory of Industrial Organization," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262200716, March.
    7. Comanor, William S & Frech, H E, III, 1985. "The Competitive Effects of Vertical Agreements?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 75(3), pages 539-546, June.
    8. Aghion, Philippe & Bolton, Patrick, 1987. "Contracts as a Barrier to Entry," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 77(3), pages 388-401, June.
    9. Mathewson, G Frank & Winter, Ralph A, 1987. "The Competitive Effects of Vertical Agreements: Comment," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 77(5), pages 1057-1062, December.
    10. Schwartz, Marius, 1987. "The Competitive Effects of Vertical Agreements: Comment," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 77(5), pages 1063-1068, December.
    11. Polo, Michele, 1991. "Hotelling Duopoly with Uninformed Consumers," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 39(6), pages 701-715, December.
    12. Comanor, William S & Frech, H E, III, 1987. "The Competitive Effects of Vertical Agreements: Reply," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 77(5), pages 1069-1072, December.
    13. Caminal, Ramon & Matutes, Carmen, 1990. "Endogenous switching costs in a duopoly model," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 8(3), pages 353-373, September.
    14. Innes, Robert & Sexton, Richard J, 1994. "Strategic Buyers and Exclusionary Contracts," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 84(3), pages 566-584, June.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Vertical restraints; exclusive dealing; requirements contracts; breach;

    JEL classification:

    • L1 - Industrial Organization - - Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance
    • L4 - Industrial Organization - - Antitrust Issues and Policies

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