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Economic transformation and the revaluation of human capital - Hungary, 1986-1999

Author

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  • Gabor Kertesi

    ()

  • Janos Kollo

    () (Institute of Economics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences)

Abstract

The paper analyses the evolution of relative wages using individual wage data, and the contribution of skills to productivity using firmlevel information from Hungary, 1986-99. Its main conclusion is that skills obsolescence was, and still is, an important aspect of postcommunist transition. The data suggest a general rise in the returns to education between 1989 and 1992. This, the paper argues, was just a mirror image of the collapse of demand for unskilled labour in a period of deep crisis when technological change was minimal, and the forces of the market just started to work. When market institutions were already at work, and modern technologies were implemented on a massive scale, the general appreciation of education stopped but the returns to experience continued to decline. Young and educated workers are paid increasing wages and their skills are estimated to yield higher productivity returns, especially in a modern environment. By contrast, neither productivity nor wages grew for the older cohorts of educated workers after 1992.

Suggested Citation

  • Gabor Kertesi & Janos Kollo, 2001. "Economic transformation and the revaluation of human capital - Hungary, 1986-1999," Budapest Working Papers on the Labour Market 0104, Institute of Economics, Centre for Economic and Regional Studies, Hungarian Academy of Sciences.
  • Handle: RePEc:has:bworkp:0104
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    Cited by:

    1. Jonas Wood & Karel Neels & Tine Kil, 2014. "The educational gradient of childlessness and cohort parity progression in 14 low fertility countries," Demographic Research, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 31(46), pages 1365-1416, December.
    2. Sándor Csengödi & Dieter M. Urban, 2008. "Foreign Takeovers and Wage Dispersion in Hungary," CESifo Working Paper Series 2188, CESifo Group Munich.
    3. Flabbi, Luca & Paternostro, Stefano & Tiongson, Erwin R., 2008. "Returns to education in the economic transition: A systematic assessment using comparable data," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 27(6), pages 724-740, December.
    4. Júlia Varga, 2002. "Earnings Expectations and Higher-education Enrolment Decisions in Hungary," Society and Economy, Akadémiai Kiadó, Hungary, vol. 24(1), pages 121-152, July.
    5. Asad Alam & Mamta Murthi & Ruslan Yemtsov & Edmundo Murrugarra & Nora Dudwick & Ellen Hamilton & Erwin Tiongson, 2005. "Growth, Poverty and Inequality : Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 7287.
    6. M. Kopasz & Z. Fábián & András Gábos & Márton Medgyesi & P. Szivós & István György Tóth, 2013. "GINI Country Report: Growing Inequalities and their Impacts in Hungary," GINI Country Reports hungary, AIAS, Amsterdam Institute for Advanced Labour Studies.
    7. Arnold, Jens & Javorcik, Beata, 2005. "Gifted Kids or Pushy Parents? Foreign Acquisitions and Plant Performance in Indonesia," CEPR Discussion Papers 5065, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    8. Jan J. Rutkowski & Stefano Scarpetta, 2005. "Enhancing Job Opportunities : Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 7408.
    9. Gabor Kezdi, 2002. "Two Phases of Labor Market Transition in Hungary: Inter-Sectoral Reallocation and Skill-Biased Technological Change," Budapest Working Papers on the Labour Market 0203, Institute of Economics, Centre for Economic and Regional Studies, Hungarian Academy of Sciences.
    10. László Halpern & Balázs Muraközy, 2007. "Does distance matter in spillover?," The Economics of Transition, The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, vol. 15, pages 781-805, October.
    11. Poór, József, 2013. "Az emberierőforrás-gazdálkodás átalakulása a nemzetközi cégek leányvállalatainál Magyarországon és a kelet-európai régióban
      [Changes of HR function at local subsidiaries of foreign-owned firms in H
      ," Közgazdasági Szemle (Economic Review - monthly of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences), Közgazdasági Szemle Alapítvány (Economic Review Foundation), vol. 0(1), pages 64-89.
    12. Szilvia Hamori & Anna Lovasz, 2011. "Can a fifty percent increase in public sector wages improve the position of public sector employees in the long run? An assessment of the public-private income gap in Hungary," Budapest Working Papers on the Labour Market 1106, Institute of Economics, Centre for Economic and Regional Studies, Hungarian Academy of Sciences.
    13. Csengődi, Sándor & Jungnickel, Rolf & Urban, Dieter M., 2005. "Foreign Takeovers and Wages: Theory and Evidence from Hungary," HWWA Discussion Papers 337, Hamburg Institute of International Economics (HWWA).
    14. Vranken, Liesbet & Swinnen, Johan, 2006. "Land rental markets in transition: Theory and evidence from Hungary," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 34(3), pages 481-500, March.
    15. Jelena Lauçev, 2012. "Public-Private Earnings Differentials during Economic Transition in Hungary," Budapest Working Papers on the Labour Market 1202, Institute of Economics, Centre for Economic and Regional Studies, Hungarian Academy of Sciences.
    16. Karoly Fazekas & Gabor Kezdi (ed.), 2007. "The Hungarian Labour Market 2007," The Hungarian Labour Market Yearbooks, Institute of Economics, Centre for Economic and Regional Studies, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, number 2007, December.
    17. Hajnalka Tarjani, 2005. "Estimating some labour market implications of skill biased technology change and imports in Hungary," IEHAS Discussion Papers 0508, Institute of Economics, Centre for Economic and Regional Studies, Hungarian Academy of Sciences.
    18. Mukesh Chawla & Gordon Betcherman & Arup Banerji, 2007. "From Red to Gray : The "Third Transition" of Aging Populations in Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 6741.

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