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L'impact des systèmes de retraite sur le niveau de vie des personnes âgées au Maghreb

Author

Listed:
  • Jean-Marc Dupuis

    (CREM - Centre de recherche en économie et management - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UR1 - Université de Rennes 1 - UNIV-RENNES - Université de Rennes - UNICAEN - Université de Caen Normandie - NU - Normandie Université)

  • Claire El Moudden

    (CREM - Centre de recherche en économie et management - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UR1 - Université de Rennes 1 - UNIV-RENNES - Université de Rennes - UNICAEN - Université de Caen Normandie - NU - Normandie Université)

  • Nacer Eddine Hammouda
  • Anne Pétron

    (CREM - Centre de recherche en économie et management - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UR1 - Université de Rennes 1 - UNIV-RENNES - Université de Rennes - UNICAEN - Université de Caen Normandie - NU - Normandie Université)

  • Mehdi Ben Braham
  • Ilham Dkhissi

    (CREM - Centre de recherche en économie et management - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UR1 - Université de Rennes 1 - UNIV-RENNES - Université de Rennes - UNICAEN - Université de Caen Normandie - NU - Normandie Université)

Abstract

Cet article étudie l'impact des systèmes de retraite sur le niveau de vie et la pauvreté des personnes âgées dans trois pays du Maghreb : l'Algérie, le Maroc et la Tunisie. Les systèmes de retraite du Maghreb sont tous des systèmes contributifs de type bismarckien. Il apparaît que les taux de pension sont assez élevés dans les pays du Maghreb. Les retraites moyennes représentent environ 50% du salaire moyen. Cependant les disparités sont fortes selon les secteurs d'activité et entre hommes et femmes. De plus, une forte proportion de la population n'est pas couverte par l'assurance vieillesse au Maghreb, ce qui réduit d'autant l'incidence des systèmes de retraite sur le revenu des personnes âgées. En l'absence ou en complément d'une couverture retraite, quelles sont les ressources des personnes âgées ? Les données d'enquêtes permettent d'estimer chacune des sources de revenu dans les trois pays. D'une manière générale, elles apparaissent diversifiées, les revenus d'activité et l'aide des enfants et de la famille arrivant en tête. Mais de fortes différences existent entre les trois pays. La pauvreté des personnes âgées dans les pays du Maghreb est cependant moins marquée que dans le reste de la population, contrairement à ce qui est observé dans d'autres pays en développement. La solidarité familiale y contribue pour beaucoup et probablement autant que les systèmes de retraite. Face aux changements démographiques, économiques et culturels en cours, et en l'absence d'une extension de la couverture à une plus large population, le choix de prestations non contributives, mises en place par d'autres pays, pourrait être une voie à suivre au Maghreb pour lutter contre cette pauvreté.

Suggested Citation

  • Jean-Marc Dupuis & Claire El Moudden & Nacer Eddine Hammouda & Anne Pétron & Mehdi Ben Braham & Ilham Dkhissi, 2011. "L'impact des systèmes de retraite sur le niveau de vie des personnes âgées au Maghreb," Post-Print halshs-00657799, HAL.
  • Handle: RePEc:hal:journl:halshs-00657799
    Note: View the original document on HAL open archive server: https://halshs.archives-ouvertes.fr/halshs-00657799
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    1. Armando Barrientos, 2003. "Pensions and Development in the South," The Geneva Papers on Risk and Insurance - Issues and Practice, Palgrave Macmillan;The Geneva Association, vol. 28(4), pages 696-711, October.
    2. David Robalino, 2005. "Pensions in the Middle East and North Africa: Time for Change," World Bank Publications - Books, The World Bank Group, number 7427, December.
    3. Ravallion, M, 1996. "Comparaisons de la Pauverte. Concepts et methodes," Papers 122, World Bank - Living Standards Measurement.
    4. Barrientos, Armando & Gorman, Mark & Heslop, Amanda, 2003. "Old Age Poverty in Developing Countries: Contributions and Dependence in Later Life," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 31(3), pages 555-570, March.
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    Cited by:

    1. Walid Merouani & Claire El Moudden & Nacer Eddine Hammouda, 2021. "Social Security Enrollment as an Indicator of State Fragility and Legitimacy: A Field Experiment in Maghreb Countries," Social Sciences, MDPI, vol. 10(7), pages 1-25, July.
    2. Walid Merouani & Claire El Moudden & Nacer-Eddine Hammouda, 2018. "Social Security Entitlement in Maghreb Countries: Who is Excluded? Who is not Interested?," Working Papers 1264, Economic Research Forum, revised 03 Dec 2018.

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