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Moduler les cotisations employeurs à l'assurance - chômage : Les expériences de bonus - malus aux Etats-Unis

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  • David Margolis

    () (CREST - Centre de Recherche en Économie et Statistique - ENSAI - Ecole Nationale de la Statistique et de l'Analyse de l'Information [Bruz] - X - École polytechnique - ENSAE ParisTech - École Nationale de la Statistique et de l'Administration Économique - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, TEAM - Théories et Applications en Microéconomie et Macroéconomie - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)

  • Denis Fougère

    (CREST - Centre de Recherche en Économie et Statistique - ENSAI - Ecole Nationale de la Statistique et de l'Analyse de l'Information [Bruz] - X - École polytechnique - ENSAE ParisTech - École Nationale de la Statistique et de l'Administration Économique - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)

Abstract

[fre] Notre article présente les résultats des études consacrées aux effets du système américain de modulation des cotisations patronales à l'assurance-chômage (experience rating) et quelques réflexions sur le cas de la France. Aux Etats-Unis, ces cotisations dépendent du nombre des licenciements effectués par l'entreprise au cours des années les plus récentes. Nous commençons par un rappel succinct de l'évolution historique du système d'assurance-chômage aux Etats-Unis, puis nous détaillons les trois modalités d'application de l'expérience rating. Notre article présente ensuite les modèles théoriques qui ont été utilisés pour analyser les effets de la modulation des cotisations patronales sur le niveau et les caractéristiques du chômage. Après avoir rappelé les résultats des études empiriques qui ont examiné les effets de la modulation des cotisations sur le chômage américain, nous soulignons les spécificités de la législation qui dans notre pays pourraient affecter le fonctionnement d'un tel système. Dans la dernière section, nous complétons cette première analyse par des informations statistiques provenant de données recueillies par l'INSEE au cours de la période 1995-1998. [eng] In this paper, we summarize the results of many studies concerning the policy of experience rating (the indexation of an employer's payroll tax rate to its past record of insured unemployment generation) in the United States, and present a few considerations relevant to the French case. We begin with a brief summary of the history of the policy, and then describe the three main methods by which it is implemented in the United States. We then discuss the theoretical models that have been used to analyze the impact of experience rating on unemployment. After describing the results of empirical analyses performed on American data, we highlight the specificities of the French legislation and labor market that could influence the manner in which such a policy would work in France. Finally, we
(This abstract was borrowed from another version of this item.)

Suggested Citation

  • David Margolis & Denis Fougère, 2000. "Moduler les cotisations employeurs à l'assurance - chômage : Les expériences de bonus - malus aux Etats-Unis," Université Paris1 Panthéon-Sorbonne (Post-Print and Working Papers) halshs-00353879, HAL.
  • Handle: RePEc:hal:cesptp:halshs-00353879
    Note: View the original document on HAL open archive server: https://halshs.archives-ouvertes.fr/halshs-00353879
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    Cited by:

    1. L'Haridon, Olivier & Malherbet, Franck, 2002. "Unemployment Compensation Finance and Aggregate Employment Fluctuations," CEPR Discussion Papers 3614, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    2. L'Haridon, Olivier & Malherbet, Franck, 2009. "Employment protection reform in search economies," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 53(3), pages 255-273, April.
    3. Friebel, Guido & Magnac, Thierry, 2007. "Public Servants: a Competitive Advantage for Public Firms?," IDEI Working Papers 495, Institut d'Économie Industrielle (IDEI), Toulouse.
    4. Abowd, John M. & Kramarz, Francis & Margolis, David N. & Philippon, Thomas, 2000. "The Tail of Two Countries: Minimum Wages and Employment in France and the United States," IZA Discussion Papers 203, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).

    More about this item

    Keywords

    chômage; assurance;

    JEL classification:

    • H25 - Public Economics - - Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue - - - Business Taxes and Subsidies
    • J23 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Labor Demand
    • J32 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs - - - Nonwage Labor Costs and Benefits; Retirement Plans; Private Pensions
    • J65 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers - - - Unemployment Insurance; Severance Pay; Plant Closings

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