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Moduler les cotisations employeurs à l'assurance-chômage : les expériences de bonus-malus aux Etats-Unis

Listed author(s):
  • David Margolis
  • Denis Fougère

[fre] Notre article présente les résultats des études consacrées aux effets du système américain de modulation des cotisations patronales à l'assurance-chômage (experience rating) et quelques réflexions sur le cas de la France. Aux Etats-Unis, ces cotisations dépendent du nombre des licenciements effectués par l'entreprise au cours des années les plus récentes. Nous commençons par un rappel succinct de l'évolution historique du système d'assurance-chômage aux Etats-Unis, puis nous détaillons les trois modalités d'application de l'expérience rating. Notre article présente ensuite les modèles théoriques qui ont été utilisés pour analyser les effets de la modulation des cotisations patronales sur le niveau et les caractéristiques du chômage. Après avoir rappelé les résultats des études empiriques qui ont examiné les effets de la modulation des cotisations sur le chômage américain, nous soulignons les spécificités de la législation qui dans notre pays pourraient affecter le fonctionnement d'un tel système. Dans la dernière section, nous complétons cette première analyse par des informations statistiques provenant de données recueillies par l'INSEE au cours de la période 1995-1998. [eng] In this paper, we summarize the results of many studies concerning the policy of experience rating (the indexation of an employer's payroll tax rate to its past record of insured unemployment generation) in the United States, and present a few considerations relevant to the French case. We begin with a brief summary of the history of the policy, and then describe the three main methods by which it is implemented in the United States. We then discuss the theoretical models that have been used to analyze the impact of experience rating on unemployment. After describing the results of empirical analyses performed on American data, we highlight the specificities of the French legislation and labor market that could influence the manner in which such a policy would work in France. Finally, we use INSEE data from the labor force survey (Enquête Emploi) to provide an empirical framework for discussion of the French situation.

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Article provided by Programme National Persée in its journal Revue française d'économie.

Volume (Year): 15 (2000)
Issue (Month): 2 ()
Pages: 3-76

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Handle: RePEc:prs:rfreco:rfeco_0769-0479_2000_num_15_2_1489
Note: DOI:10.3406/rfeco.2000.1489
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