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The Transmission of Monetary Policy under the Microscope



We investigate the transmission of monetary policy to household consumption using detailed administrative data on the universe of households in Norway. Based on a novel series of identified monetary policy shocks, we estimate the dynamic responses of consumption, income, and saving along the liquid asset distribution of households. We find that low-liquidity but also high-liquidity households show strong responses, interest rate changes faced by borrowers and savers feed into consumption, and indirect effects of monetary policy outweigh direct effects, albeit with a delay. Overall, the results support the importance of financial frictions, cash-flow channels, and heterogeneous effects of monetary policy.

Suggested Citation

  • Martin Holm & Pascal Paul & Andreas Tischbirek, 2020. "The Transmission of Monetary Policy under the Microscope," Working Paper Series 2020-03, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco.
  • Handle: RePEc:fip:fedfwp:87419
    DOI: 10.24148/wp2020-03

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    Cited by:

    1. Andersson, Fredrik N. G. & Kilman, Josefin, 2021. "A Study of the Romer and Romer Monetary Policy Shocks Using Revised Data," Working Papers 2021:19, Lund University, Department of Economics.
    2. Moser, Christian & Saidi, Farzad & Wirth, Benjamin & Wolter, Stefanie, 2020. "Credit Supply, Firms, and Earnings Inequality," MPRA Paper 100371, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    3. Asger Lau Andersen & Niels Johannesen & Mia Jørgensen & José-Luis Peydró, 2020. "Monetary policy and inequality," Economics Working Papers 1761, Department of Economics and Business, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, revised Mar 2021.
    4. Macaulay, Alistair, 2021. "The attention trap: Rational inattention, inequality, and fiscal policy," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 135(C).
    5. Jan Philipp Fritsche & Lea Steininger, 2021. "Zooming in on Monetary Policy - The Labor Share and Production Dynamics of Two Million Firms," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 1967, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
    6. Lee, Seungcheol & Luetticke, Ralph & Ravn, Morten O, 2020. "Financial Frictions: Macro vs Micro Volatility," CEPR Discussion Papers 15133, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    7. R. Anton Braun & Daisuke Ikeda, 2021. "Monetary Policy over the Lifecycle," IMES Discussion Paper Series 21-E-09, Institute for Monetary and Economic Studies, Bank of Japan.
    8. Mujtaba Zia & Jennifer Logan, 2021. "Bank Revolving Credit as a Channel of Monetary Policy," The Review of Finance and Banking, Academia de Studii Economice din Bucuresti, Romania / Facultatea de Finante, Asigurari, Banci si Burse de Valori / Catedra de Finante, vol. 13(2), pages 147-160, December.
    9. Leonardo N. Ferreira, 2020. "Forward Guidance Matters: disentangling monetary policy shocks," Working Papers Series 530, Central Bank of Brazil, Research Department.
    10. Mäki-Fränti, Petri & Silvo, Aino & Gulan, Adam & Kilponen, Juha, 2022. "Monetary policy and inequality : The Finnish case," Research Discussion Papers 3/2022, Bank of Finland.

    More about this item


    Monetary policy; Household balance sheets; Liquidity constraints; Heterogeneous agent New Keynesian models;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • D31 - Microeconomics - - Distribution - - - Personal Income and Wealth Distribution
    • E12 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - General Aggregative Models - - - Keynes; Keynesian; Post-Keynesian; Modern Monetary Theory
    • E21 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Consumption, Saving, Production, Employment, and Investment - - - Consumption; Saving; Wealth
    • E24 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Consumption, Saving, Production, Employment, and Investment - - - Employment; Unemployment; Wages; Intergenerational Income Distribution; Aggregate Human Capital; Aggregate Labor Productivity
    • E32 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Prices, Business Fluctuations, and Cycles - - - Business Fluctuations; Cycles
    • E43 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Money and Interest Rates - - - Interest Rates: Determination, Term Structure, and Effects
    • E52 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit - - - Monetary Policy

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