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Employment and Innovations in the Environmental Sector: Determinants and Econometrical Results for Germany


  • Jens Horbach

    (University of Applied Sciences Anhalt, Germany)


Besides other determinants environmental regulation, institutions like environmental agencies and social customs lead to a demand for environmental goods and services. On the basis of the public choice theory it can be shown that environmental regulation is endogenous and can be influenced by the environmental awareness of voters and interest groups. Following the so-called Porter hypothesis early developed environmental legislation induces environmental innovations and creates first mover advantages connected with a high international competitiveness of the environmental industry. An empirical analysis based on the establishment panel of the Institute for Employment Research (IAB) shows that more than 900,000 persons are employed in the environmental sector in Germany. Following the results of an econometrical analysis of employment perspectives and innovation behaviour integrated environmental technologies will become more relevant whereas employment in “traditional” end-of-pipe fields like the prevention of waste water pollution or air pollution will be reduced.

Suggested Citation

  • Jens Horbach, 2003. "Employment and Innovations in the Environmental Sector: Determinants and Econometrical Results for Germany," Working Papers 2003.47, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei.
  • Handle: RePEc:fem:femwpa:2003.47

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Keeler Andrew G. & Renkow Mitch, 1994. "Haul Trash or Haul Ash: Energy Recovery as a Component of Local Solid Waste Management," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 27(3), pages 205-217, November.
    2. World Bank, 2002. "World Development Indicators 2002," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 13921, June.
    3. Miranda, Marie Lynn & Hale, Brack, 1997. "Waste not, want not: the private and social costs of waste-to-energy production," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 25(6), pages 587-600, May.
    4. Vollebergh, Herman, 1997. "Environmental externalities and social optimality in biomass markets: waste-to-energy in The Netherlands and biofuels in France," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 25(6), pages 605-621, May.
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    Cited by:

    1. Frondel, Manuel & Horbach, Jens & Rennings, Klaus, 2004. "End-of-Pipe or Cleaner Production? An Empirical Comparison of Environmental Innovation Decisions Across OECD Countries," ZEW Discussion Papers 04-82, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
    2. Frondel, Manuel & Horbach, Jens & Rennings, Klaus & Requate, Till, 2004. "Environmental Policy Tools and Firm-Level Management Practices: Empirical Evidence for Germany," Economics Working Papers 2004-02, Christian-Albrechts-University of Kiel, Department of Economics.
    3. Horbach, Jens, 2008. "The impact of innovation activities on employment in the environmental sector : empirical results for Germany at the firm level," IAB Discussion Paper 200816, Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany].
    4. Daniela Kletzan-Slamanig & Angela Köppl, 2009. "Austria's Environmental Technology Industry: Development – Emphasis – Innovation," WIFO Monatsberichte (monthly reports), WIFO, vol. 82(7), pages 539-554, July.

    More about this item


    Employment; Environmental sector; Innovation behaviour;

    JEL classification:

    • Q21 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Renewable Resources and Conservation - - - Demand and Supply; Prices
    • J4 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Particular Labor Markets
    • C25 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Discrete Regression and Qualitative Choice Models; Discrete Regressors; Proportions; Probabilities

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