Democracy and Legitimacy in the European Union Revisited - Input, Output and Throughput
Whether their analytic frameworks focus on institutional form and practices or on its interactive construction, scholars have analyzed the EU’s democratic legitimacy mainly in terms of the trade-offs between the output effectiveness of EU’s policies outcomes for the people and the input participation by and representation of the people. Missing is theorization of the throughput efficiency, accountability, transparency, and openness to consultation with the people of the EU’s internal governance processes. The paper argues that adding this analytic category facilitates assessment of these legitimizing mechanisms’ interdependencies and facilitates consideration of reforms that could turn this democratic trilemma into a virtuous circle.
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- Vivien A. Schmidt, 2004. "The European Union: Democratic Legitimacy in a Regional State?," Journal of Common Market Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 42(5), pages 975-997, December.
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- Scharpf, Fritz W., 2007. "Reflections on multilevel legitimacy," MPIfG Working Paper 07/3, Max Planck Institute for the Study of Societies.
- Vivien A. Schmidt, 2009. "Re-Envisioning the European Union: Identity, Democracy, Economy," Journal of Common Market Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 47, pages 17-42, 09.
- Erik Oddvar Eriksen & John Erik Fossum, 2002. "Democracy through Strong Publics in the European Union?," Journal of Common Market Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 40(3), pages 401-424, 09.
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