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What drives household inflation expectations in South Africa? Demographics and anchoring under inflation targeting

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  • Stan Du Plessis
  • Monique Reid
  • Pierre Siklos

Abstract

This paper examines the demographic determinants of inflation expectations in South Africa. Five surveys covering the period 2006-2016, and consisting of over 12000 observations were empirically examined using time series, cross-sectional, censored and quantile regressions. We assess whether factors such as gender, income, education, race and age, impact one year ahead inflation expectations. In doing so we uncover clear behavioural biases in how respondents view the inflation outlook. For example, education and income tend to be inversely related to inflation expectations. This is consistent with the literature although we observe significant changes over time that many other surveys are unable to uncover. In addition, it seems that inflation expectations respond to recently observed inflation. Unlike other studies, younger individuals have lower inflation expectations and we conjecture that the adoption of inflation targeting in South Africa played a role. Finally, we find that demographic characteristics interact with communication by the South African Reserve Bank, as well whether inflation is rising or falling. These are two additional novel features of the analysis.

Suggested Citation

  • Stan Du Plessis & Monique Reid & Pierre Siklos, 2018. "What drives household inflation expectations in South Africa? Demographics and anchoring under inflation targeting," CAMA Working Papers 2018-48, Centre for Applied Macroeconomic Analysis, Crawford School of Public Policy, The Australian National University.
  • Handle: RePEc:een:camaaa:2018-48
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    Cited by:

    1. Michael D. Bordo & Pierre Siklos, 2019. "The Transformation and Performance of Emerging Market Economies Across the Great Divide of the Global Financial Crisis," NBER Working Papers 26342, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    2. Ricardo Reis, 2021. "Losing the Inflation Anchors," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 52(2 (Fall)), pages 307-379.
    3. Swapnil Virendra Chalwadi & Preeti Tushar Joshi & Nitin Mohanlal Sharma & Chaitanya Gite & Sangita Salve, 2023. "Gender Differences in Inflation Expectations: Recent Evidence from India," Administrative Sciences, MDPI, vol. 13(2), pages 1-14, February.
    4. Andrew Phiri & Lutho Mbekeni, 2021. "Fisher’s hypothesis, survey-based expectations and asymmetric adjustments: Empirical evidence from South Africa," International Economics and Economic Policy, Springer, vol. 18(4), pages 825-846, October.
    5. Sof'a Gallardo & Carlos Madeira, 2022. "The role of financial surveys for economic research and policy making in emerging markets," Chapters, in: Duc K. Nguyen (ed.), Handbook of Banking and Finance in Emerging Markets, chapter 36, pages 676-686, Edward Elgar Publishing.
    6. Monique Reid & Pierre Siklos, 2024. "Firm Level Expectations and Macroeconomic Conditions: Underpinnings and Disagreement," CAMA Working Papers 2024-05, Centre for Applied Macroeconomic Analysis, Crawford School of Public Policy, The Australian National University.
    7. Monique B. Reid & Pierre L. Siklos, 2022. "How Firms and Experts View The Phillips Curve: Evidence from Individual and Aggregate Data from South Africa," Emerging Markets Finance and Trade, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 58(12), pages 3355-3376, September.
    8. Ken Miyajima & James Yetman, 2019. "Assessing inflation expectations anchoring for heterogeneous agents: analysts, businesses and trade unions," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 51(41), pages 4499-4515, September.
    9. Patrick Honohan & Athanasios Orphanides, 2022. "Monetary policy in South Africa, 2007-21," WIDER Working Paper Series wp-2022-29, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    10. Monique Reid & Pierre Siklos, 2021. "The Bureau for Economic Research's inflation expectations surveys: Know your data," Working Papers 10/2021, Stellenbosch University, Department of Economics.
    11. Monique Reid & Pierre Siklos, 2020. "Building Credibility and Influencing Expectations The Evolution of Central Bank Communication," Working Papers 10144, South African Reserve Bank.

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    JEL classification:

    • E71 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Macro-Based Behavioral Economics - - - Role and Effects of Psychological, Emotional, Social, and Cognitive Factors on the Macro Economy
    • E65 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Macroeconomic Policy, Macroeconomic Aspects of Public Finance, and General Outlook - - - Studies of Particular Policy Episodes
    • E31 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Prices, Business Fluctuations, and Cycles - - - Price Level; Inflation; Deflation

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