IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/eec/wpaper/1208.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Reconsidering learning by exporting

Author

Listed:
  • Miguel Manjón

    (Universitat Rovira i Virgili)

  • Juan A. Mañez

    (Universitat de València)

  • María E. Rochina-Barrachina

    (Universitat de València)

  • Juan A. Sanchis-Llopis

    (Universitat de València)

Abstract

Self-selection and learning-by-exporting are the main explanations for the higher productivity of exporting firms. But, whereas evidence on self-selection is largely undisputed, results on learning-by-exporting are mixed and far from conclusive. However, recent research (De Loecker, 2010) has shown that the conclusions from previous learning-by-exporting studies may have been driven by strong assumptions about the evolution of productivity and the role of export status. Relaxing these assumptions turns out to be critical to find evidence of learning-byexporting in a representative sample of Spanish manufacturing firms. Our results indicate that the yearly average gains in productivity are around 3% for at least four years.

Suggested Citation

  • Miguel Manjón & Juan A. Mañez & María E. Rochina-Barrachina & Juan A. Sanchis-Llopis, 2012. "Reconsidering learning by exporting," Working Papers 1208, Department of Applied Economics II, Universidad de Valencia.
  • Handle: RePEc:eec:wpaper:1208
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://repecsrv.uv.es/paper/RePEc/pdf/eec_1208.pdf
    File Function: First version, 2012
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Bernard, Andrew B. & Bradford Jensen, J., 1999. "Exceptional exporter performance: cause, effect, or both?," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 47(1), pages 1-25, February.
    2. Armando Silva & Ana Paula Africano & Óscar Afonso, 2010. "Learning-by-exporting: what we know and what we would like to know," FEP Working Papers 364, Universidade do Porto, Faculdade de Economia do Porto.
    3. Sofronis K. Clerides & Saul Lach & James R. Tybout, 1998. "Is Learning by Exporting Important? Micro-Dynamic Evidence from Colombia, Mexico, and Morocco," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 113(3), pages 903-947.
    4. Joachim Wagner, 2016. "Exports and Productivity: A Survey of the Evidence from Firm Level Data," World Scientific Book Chapters, in: Microeconometrics of International Trade, chapter 1, pages 3-41, World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    5. Pedro Martins & Yong Yang, 2009. "The impact of exporting on firm productivity: a meta-analysis of the learning-by-exporting hypothesis," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 145(3), pages 431-445, October.
    6. Hansson, Pär & Lundin, Nan Nan, 2003. "Exports as an Indicator on or Promoter of Successful Swedish Manufacturing Firms in the 1990s," Working Paper Series 189, Trade Union Institute for Economic Research.
    7. Alberto Abadie & David Drukker & Jane Leber Herr & Guido W. Imbens, 2004. "Implementing matching estimators for average treatment effects in Stata," Stata Journal, StataCorp LP, vol. 4(3), pages 290-311, September.
    8. Delgado, Miguel A. & Farinas, Jose C. & Ruano, Sonia, 2002. "Firm productivity and export markets: a non-parametric approach," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 57(2), pages 397-422, August.
    9. De Loecker, Jan, 2010. "A Note on Detecting Learning by Exporting," CEPR Discussion Papers 8121, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    10. Tarlok Singh, 2010. "Does International Trade Cause Economic Growth? A Survey," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 33(11), pages 1517-1564, November.
    11. Barbara Sianesi, 2004. "An Evaluation of the Swedish System of Active Labor Market Programs in the 1990s," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 86(1), pages 133-155, February.
    12. Juan A. Máñez‐Castillejo & María E. Rochina‐Barrachina & Juan A. Sanchis‐Llopis, 2010. "Does Firm Size Affect Self‐selection and Learning‐by‐Exporting?," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 33(3), pages 315-346, March.
    13. Joachim Wagner, 2016. "International Trade and Firm Performance: A Survey of Empirical Studies since 2006," World Scientific Book Chapters, in: Microeconometrics of International Trade, chapter 2, pages 43-87, World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    14. Francesco Serti & Chiara Tomasi, 2008. "Self-Selection and Post-Entry Effects of Exports: Evidence from Italian Manufacturing Firms," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 144(4), pages 660-694, December.
    15. Van Biesebroeck, Johannes, 2005. "Exporting raises productivity in sub-Saharan African manufacturing firms," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 67(2), pages 373-391, December.
    16. Kasahara, Hiroyuki & Rodrigue, Joel, 2008. "Does the use of imported intermediates increase productivity? Plant-level evidence," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 87(1), pages 106-118, August.
    17. Alberto Abadie & Guido W. Imbens, 2008. "On the Failure of the Bootstrap for Matching Estimators," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 76(6), pages 1537-1557, November.
    18. Ackerberg, Daniel & Caves, Kevin & Frazer, Garth, 2006. "Structural identification of production functions," MPRA Paper 38349, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    19. Olley, G Steven & Pakes, Ariel, 1996. "The Dynamics of Productivity in the Telecommunications Equipment Industry," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 64(6), pages 1263-1297, November.
    20. Greenaway, David & Kneller, Richard, 2008. "Exporting, productivity and agglomeration," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 52(5), pages 919-939, July.
    21. Marc J. Melitz, 2003. "The Impact of Trade on Intra-Industry Reallocations and Aggregate Industry Productivity," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 71(6), pages 1695-1725, November.
    22. David Greenaway & Richard Kneller, 2007. "Firm heterogeneity, exporting and foreign direct investment," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 117(517), pages 134-161, February.
    23. Sourafel Girma & Avid Greenaway & Richard Kneller, 2004. "Does Exporting Increase Productivity? A Microeconometric Analysis of Matched Firms," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 12(5), pages 855-866, November.
    24. Jens Matthias Arnold & Katrin Hussinger, 2005. "Export Behavior and Firm Productivity in German Manufacturing: A Firm-Level Analysis," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 141(2), pages 219-243, July.
    25. De Loecker, Jan, 2007. "Do exports generate higher productivity? Evidence from Slovenia," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 73(1), pages 69-98, September.
    26. James Levinsohn & Amil Petrin, 2003. "Estimating Production Functions Using Inputs to Control for Unobservables," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 70(2), pages 317-341.
    27. Jože P. Damijan & Črt Kostevc, 2006. "Learning-by-Exporting: Continuous Productivity Improvements or Capacity Utilization Effects? Evidence from Slovenian Firms," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 142(3), pages 599-614, October.
    28. Wooldridge, Jeffrey M., 2009. "On estimating firm-level production functions using proxy variables to control for unobservables," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 104(3), pages 112-114, September.
    29. Sascha O. Becker & Andrea Ichino, 2002. "Estimation of average treatment effects based on propensity scores," Stata Journal, StataCorp LP, vol. 2(4), pages 358-377, November.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. HOSONO Kaoru & MIYAKAWA Daisuke & TAKIZAWA Miho, 2015. "Learning by Export: Does the presence of foreign affiliate companies matter?," Discussion papers 15053, Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI).
    2. Alberola, Enrique & Benigno, Gianluca, 2017. "Revisiting the commodity curse: A financial perspective," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 108(S1), pages 87-106.
    3. Konstantins Benkovskis & Jaan Masso & Olegs Tkacevs & Priit Vahter & Naomitsu Yashiro, 2020. "Export and productivity in global value chains: comparative evidence from Latvia and Estonia," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 156(3), pages 557-577, August.
    4. Youngho Kang, 2021. "How you pay matters: performance-related pay and learning by exporting," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 60(5), pages 2455-2475, May.
    5. Hernández, Pedro Jesús, 2012. "Is there a Producer Quality Wage Premium similar to the Exporter Wage Premium," UMUFAE Economics Working Papers 28517, DIGITUM. Universidad de Murcia.
    6. Joachim Wagner, 2013. "Micro-econometric studies of international firm activities and firm performance: introduction by guest editor," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 149(1), pages 1-3, March.
    7. Cassey Lee, . "The Exporting and Productivity Nexus: Does Firm Size Matter?," Chapters, in: Chin Hee Hahn & Dionisius A. Narjoko (ed.), Globalization and Performance of Small and Large Firms, chapter 8, pages VIII-1 - , Economic Research Institute for ASEAN and East Asia (ERIA).
    8. Andrés Mauricio Gómez-Sánchez & Juan A. Máñez & Juan A. Sanchis, 2021. "Are importing and exporting complements or substitues in an emerging economy? The case of Colombia," Working Papers 2106, Department of Applied Economics II, Universidad de Valencia.
    9. Hernández, Pedro, 2012. "Is there a producer quality wage premium similar to the exporter wage premium?," MPRA Paper 41082, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    10. Tommaso Ciarli & Alex Coad & Alessio Moneta, 2019. "Exporting and productivity as part of the growth process: Causal evidence from a data-driven structural VAR," LEM Papers Series 2019/39, Laboratory of Economics and Management (LEM), Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies, Pisa, Italy.
    11. Nikolaj Malchow-Møller & Jakob Munch & Jan Skaksen, 2015. "Services trade, goods trade and productivity growth: evidence from a population of private sector firms," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 151(2), pages 197-229, May.
    12. Dolores Añón Higón & Miguel Manjón & Juan A. Máñez & Juan A. Sanchis-Llopis, 2014. "Does R&D Protect Smes From The Hardness Of The Cycle? Evidence From Spanish Smes (1990-2009)," Working Papers 1411, Department of Applied Economics II, Universidad de Valencia.
    13. Johannes Schwarzer, 2017. "The Effects of Exporting on Labour Productivity: Evidence from German Firms," Working Papers 1702, Council on Economic Policies.
    14. Steven Husted & Shuichiro Nishioka, 2015. "Productivity growth and new market entry," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 151(4), pages 687-712, November.
    15. Love, James H. & Máñez, Juan A., 2019. "Persistence in exporting: Cumulative and punctuated learning effects," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 28(1), pages 74-89.
    16. Ruohan Wu & Jong-Rong Chiou, 2021. "Retesting the Learning-by-Exporting Theory: An Investigation of Chinese Manufacturers’ Productivity Under Globalization," Atlantic Economic Journal, Springer;International Atlantic Economic Society, vol. 49(1), pages 71-85, March.
    17. Mercè Sala-Ríos & Mariona Farré-Perdiguer & Teresa Torres-Solé, 2020. "Exporting and Firms’ Performance—What about Cooperatives? Evidence from Spain," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 12(20), pages 1-22, October.
    18. David Powell & Joachim Wagner, 2021. "The Exporter Productivity Premium Along the Productivity Distribution: Evidence from Quantile Regression with Nonadditive Firm Fixed Effects," World Scientific Book Chapters, in: Joachim Wagner (ed.), MICROECONOMETRIC STUDIES OF FIRMS’ IMPORTS AND EXPORTS Advanced Methods of Analysis and Evidence from German Enterprises, chapter 9, pages 121-149, World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    19. Serrano, Javier & Myro, Rafael, 2019. "From domestic to exporter, what happens? Evidence for Spanish manufacturing firms," Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, Elsevier, vol. 51(C), pages 380-392.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Cirera,Xavier & Lederman,Daniel & Máñez,J.A. & Rochina,M.E. & Sanchis,J.A., 2015. "The export-productivity link in Brazilian manufacturing firms," Policy Research Working Paper Series 7365, The World Bank.
    2. DU, Julan & LU, Yi & TAO, Zhigang & YU, Linhui, 2012. "Do domestic and foreign exporters differ in learning by exporting? Evidence from China," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 23(2), pages 296-315.
    3. Başak Dalgıç & Burcu Fazlıoğlu & Deniz Karaoğlan, 2015. "Entry to foreign markets and productivity: Evidence from a matched sample of Turkish manufacturing firms," The Journal of International Trade & Economic Development, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 24(5), pages 638-659, August.
    4. Kazuhiko Yokota & Kyosuke Kurita & Shujiro Urata, 2016. "In Search of the Learning-by-Exporting Effect: Role of Economies of Scale and Technology," China Economic Policy Review (CEPR), World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., vol. 5(01), pages 1-27, June.
    5. Miljana Valdec & Jurica Zrnc, 2015. "The direction of causality between exports and firm performance: microeconomic evidence from Croatia using the matching approach," Financial Theory and Practice, Institute of Public Finance, vol. 39(1), pages 1-30.
    6. Juan A. Máñez‐Castillejo & María E. Rochina‐Barrachina & Juan A. Sanchis‐Llopis, 2010. "Does Firm Size Affect Self‐selection and Learning‐by‐Exporting?," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 33(3), pages 315-346, March.
    7. Francesco Serti & Chiara Tomasi, 2008. "Self-Selection and Post-Entry Effects of Exports: Evidence from Italian Manufacturing Firms," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 144(4), pages 660-694, December.
    8. Pierluigi Montalbano & Silvia Nenci & Carlo Pietrobelli, 2018. "Opening and linking up: firms, GVCs, and productivity in Latin America," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 50(4), pages 917-935, April.
    9. BOERMANS, Martijn Adriaan, 2013. "LEARNING-BY-EXPORTING AND DESTINATION EFFECTS: EVIDENCE FROM AFRICAN SMEs," Applied Econometrics and International Development, Euro-American Association of Economic Development, vol. 13(2), pages 149-168.
    10. Tarlok Singh, 2010. "Does International Trade Cause Economic Growth? A Survey," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 33(11), pages 1517-1564, November.
    11. Yang, Yong & Mallick, Sushanta, 2014. "Explaining cross-country differences in exporting performance: The role of country-level macroeconomic environment," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 23(1), pages 246-259.
    12. Dalgic, Basak & Fazlioglu, Burcu & Gasiorek, Michael, 2015. "Costs of trade and self-selection into exporting and importing: The case of Turkish manufacturing firms," Economics - The Open-Access, Open-Assessment E-Journal (2007-2020), Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW Kiel), vol. 9, pages 1-28.
    13. Maggioni Daniela, 2012. "Learning by Exporting in Turkey: An Investigation for Existence and Channels," Global Economy Journal, De Gruyter, vol. 12(2), pages 1-20, June.
    14. Fatou Cisse, 2017. "Do Firms Learn by Exporting or Learn to Export? Evidence from Senegalese Manufacturing Firms," Journal of African Development, African Finance and Economic Association (AFEA), vol. 19(1), pages 133-160.
    15. Fatou Cissé & Ji Eun Choi, 2015. "Do firms learn by exporting or learn to export? Evidence from Senegalese manufacturing plant," WIDER Working Paper Series 057, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    16. Joachim Wagner, 2016. "International Trade and Firm Performance: A Survey of Empirical Studies since 2006," World Scientific Book Chapters, in: Microeconometrics of International Trade, chapter 2, pages 43-87, World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    17. Montalbano, Pierluigi & Nenci, Silvia & Pietrobelli, Carlo, 2017. "Opening and linking up: Firms, global value chains and productivity in Latin America," MERIT Working Papers 2017-030, United Nations University - Maastricht Economic and Social Research Institute on Innovation and Technology (MERIT).
    18. Carlo Reggiani & Yevgeniya Shevtsova, 2018. "Trade and Productivity in a Transition Economy: the Role of Industry and Export Destination," Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade, Springer, vol. 18(3), pages 395-428, September.
    19. Serrano, Javier & Myro, Rafael, 2019. "From domestic to exporter, what happens? Evidence for Spanish manufacturing firms," Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, Elsevier, vol. 51(C), pages 380-392.
    20. Ehouman Williams V. Ahouakan & M'Baye Diene, 2017. "Does School Quality Matter? Primary Schools Characteristics and Child Labour Intensity in Senegal," Journal of African Development, African Finance and Economic Association (AFEA), vol. 19(1), pages 113-131.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    learning-by-exporting; productivity;

    JEL classification:

    • F14 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Empirical Studies of Trade
    • D24 - Microeconomics - - Production and Organizations - - - Production; Cost; Capital; Capital, Total Factor, and Multifactor Productivity; Capacity
    • C14 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General - - - Semiparametric and Nonparametric Methods: General
    • C33 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Models with Panel Data; Spatio-temporal Models
    • C36 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Instrumental Variables (IV) Estimation

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eec:wpaper:1208. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/dsvales.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Vicente Esteve (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/dsvales.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.