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Etnia y desempeño académico en Colombia


  • Andrés Sánchez Jabba



In Colombia, ethnic students have a low academic achievement compared to their non-ethnic peers in standardized test scores on math and language. This achievement gap is persistent at the state level, especially in high ethnic density states. Using information regarding results from the state academic test (SABER 11), this study aims to corroborate the existence of an academic gap between ethnic and non-ethnic students and additionally, decompose it in factors related to observable characteristics related to the student, his family and school, non-observable factors. For this purpose, the methodology proposed by Blinder and Oaxaca applied to quantile regression is used in order to determine the existence of test score gaps throughout the distribution of academic performance. Results indicate that within states where there is a statistically significant academic achievement gap, a sizeable portion of it is attributed non-observable factors. Nonetheless, for distinct levels of academic performance, the gap size and the extent to which it can be attributed non-observable factors vary according to the state which is examined. RESUMEN: En Colombia, los estudiantes pertenecientes a una etnia presentan un desempeño inferior al de sus pares no étnicos en los puntajes asociados a pruebas académicas estandarizadas, en las áreas de matemática y lenguaje. Dicha brecha es persistente a nivel departamental, especialmente entre los departamentos donde reside un alto porcentaje de población étnica. Utilizando información asociada a los resultados en la prueba SABER 11, este estudio encuentra una brecha en el desempeño académico de los estudiantes étnicos con los no étnicos y la descompone en factores relacionados con las características observables de los estudiantes, sus familias y su colegio, así como factores no observados. Para ello se utiliza la metodología propuesta por Blinder y Oaxaca, la cual se extiende al análisis de regresiones por cuantiles. Los resultados indican que en los departamentos donde la brecha académica es estadísticamente significativa, la mayor parte de esta es atribuible a factores no observables. Sin embargo, para distintos niveles de desempeño académico, el comportamiento de la misma y sus factores explicativos son diversos.

Suggested Citation

  • Andrés Sánchez Jabba, 2011. "Etnia y desempeño académico en Colombia," Documentos de Trabajo Sobre Economía Regional y Urbana 009109, Banco de la República - Economía Regional.
  • Handle: RePEc:col:000102:009109
    DOI: 10.32468/dtseru.156

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    Cited by:

    1. Andres Sanchez Jabba, 2012. "El bilingüismo en los bachilleres colombianos," Documentos de trabajo sobre Economía Regional y Urbana 159, Banco de la Republica de Colombia.

    More about this item


    desempeño académico; etnia; educación.;

    JEL classification:

    • I24 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Education and Inequality
    • J15 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Minorities, Races, Indigenous Peoples, and Immigrants; Non-labor Discrimination

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