IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/chf/rpseri/rp1319.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Trading Out of Sight: An Analysis of Cross-Trading in Mutual Fund Families

Author

Listed:
  • Alexander Eisele

    (University of Lugano)

  • Tamara Nefedova

    (Université Paris-Dauphine)

  • Gianpaolo Parise

    (EDHEC)

  • Kim Peijnenburg

    (Netspar; Centre for Economic Policy Research (CEPR); EDHEC Business School - Department of Economics & Finance)

Abstract

This paper explores the incentives for mutual funds to trade with sibling funds affiliated with the same group. To this end, we construct a dataset of almost one million equity transactions and compare the pricing of trades crossed internally (cross-trades) with that of twin trades executed with external counterparties. We find that cross-trades are used either to opportunistically reallocate performance among trading funds or to reduce transaction costs for both counterparties. The prevalent incentive depends on the intensity of internal monitoring and the market state. We discuss the implications for the literature on fund performance and the current regulatory debate.

Suggested Citation

  • Alexander Eisele & Tamara Nefedova & Gianpaolo Parise & Kim Peijnenburg, 2013. "Trading Out of Sight: An Analysis of Cross-Trading in Mutual Fund Families," Swiss Finance Institute Research Paper Series 13-19, Swiss Finance Institute.
  • Handle: RePEc:chf:rpseri:rp1319
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2023976
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Simon Johnson, 2000. "Tunneling," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 90(2), pages 22-27, May.
    2. Michael C. Jensen, 1968. "The Performance Of Mutual Funds In The Period 1945–1964," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 23(2), pages 389-416, May.
    3. Shleifer, Andrei & Vishny, Robert W, 1992. "Liquidation Values and Debt Capacity: A Market Equilibrium Approach," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 47(4), pages 1343-1366, September.
    4. Markus Ibert & Ron Kaniel & Stijn Van Nieuwerburgh & Roine Vestman, 2018. "Are Mutual Fund Managers Paid for Investment Skill?," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 31(2), pages 715-772.
    5. Stein, Jeremy C, 1997. "Internal Capital Markets and the Competition for Corporate Resources," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 52(1), pages 111-133, March.
    6. Martin C Schmalz & Sergey Zhuk, 2019. "Revealing Downturns," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 32(1), pages 338-373.
    7. Ippolito, Richard A, 1992. "Consumer Reaction to Measures of Poor Quality: Evidence from the Mutual Fund Industry," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 35(1), pages 45-70, April.
    8. Craig W. Holden & Stacey Jacobsen, 2014. "Liquidity Measurement Problems in Fast, Competitive Markets: Expensive and Cheap Solutions," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 69(4), pages 1747-1785, August.
    9. Grinblatt, Mark & Titman, Sheridan, 1992. "The Persistence of Mutual Fund Performance," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 47(5), pages 1977-1984, December.
    10. Edwin J. Elton & Martin J. Gruber & Christopher R. Blake, 2003. "Incentive Fees and Mutual Funds," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 58(2), pages 779-804, April.
    11. Massa, Massimo, 2003. "How do family strategies affect fund performance? When performance-maximization is not the only game in town," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 67(2), pages 249-304, February.
    12. Chevalier, Judith & Ellison, Glenn, 1997. "Risk Taking by Mutual Funds as a Response to Incentives," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 105(6), pages 1167-1200, December.
    13. Erik R. Sirri & Peter Tufano, 1998. "Costly Search and Mutual Fund Flows," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 53(5), pages 1589-1622, October.
    14. W. Michael Hoffman & John D. Neill & O. Scott Stovall, 2008. "Mutual Fund Compliance Officer Independence and Corporate Governance," Corporate Governance: An International Review, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 16(1), pages 52-60, January.
    15. Hasbrouck, Joel, 2007. "Empirical Market Microstructure: The Institutions, Economics, and Econometrics of Securities Trading," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780195301649, Decembrie.
    16. Shive, Sophie & Yun, Hayong, 2013. "Are mutual funds sitting ducks?," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 107(1), pages 220-237.
    17. Joseph Chen & Harrison Hong & Wenxi Jiang & Jeffrey D. Kubik, 2013. "Outsourcing Mutual Fund Management: Firm Boundaries, Incentives, and Performance," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 68(2), pages 523-558, April.
    18. Scholes, Myron S, 1972. "The Market for Securities: Substitution versus Price Pressure and the Effects of Information on Share Prices," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 45(2), pages 179-211, April.
    19. Glode, Vincent, 2011. "Why mutual funds "underperform"," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 99(3), pages 546-559, March.
    20. Marcin Kacperczyk & Clemens Sialm & Lu Zheng, 2008. "Unobserved Actions of Mutual Funds," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 21(6), pages 2379-2416, November.
    21. Keim, Donald B. & Madhavan, Ananth, 1997. "Transactions costs and investment style: an inter-exchange analysis of institutional equity trades," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 46(3), pages 265-292, December.
    22. Coval, Joshua & Stafford, Erik, 2007. "Asset fire sales (and purchases) in equity markets," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 86(2), pages 479-512, November.
    23. Utpal Bhattacharya & Jung H. Lee & Veronika K. Pool, 2013. "Conflicting Family Values in Mutual Fund Families," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 68(1), pages 173-200, February.
    24. Eric Zitzewitz, 2006. "How Widespread Was Late Trading in Mutual Funds?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 96(2), pages 284-289, May.
    25. Andy Puckett & Xuemin (Sterling) Yan, 2011. "The Interim Trading Skills of Institutional Investors," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 66(2), pages 601-633, April.
    26. Marcin Kacperczyk & Stijn Van Nieuwerburgh & Laura Veldkamp, 2014. "Time-Varying Fund Manager Skill," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 69(4), pages 1455-1484, August.
    27. Michael Alles & Srikant Datar, 1998. "Strategic Transfer Pricing," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 44(4), pages 451-461, April.
    28. Jack Hirshleifer, 1956. "On the Economics of Transfer Pricing," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 29, pages 172-172.
    29. Pástor, Ľuboš & Stambaugh, Robert F. & Taylor, Lucian A., 2015. "Scale and skill in active management," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 116(1), pages 23-45.
    30. Azi Ben-Rephael & Zhi Da & Ryan D. Israelsen, 2017. "It Depends on Where You Search: Institutional Investor Attention and Underreaction to News," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 30(9), pages 3009-3047.
    31. Kyle Jurado & Sydney C. Ludvigson & Serena Ng, 2015. "Measuring Uncertainty," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 105(3), pages 1177-1216, March.
    32. repec:oup:revfin:v:29:y:2016:i:12:p:3428-3470. is not listed on IDEAS
    33. Amber Anand & Paul Irvine & Andy Puckett & Kumar Venkataraman, 2012. "Performance of Institutional Trading Desks: An Analysis of Persistence in Trading Costs," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 25(2), pages 557-598.
    34. Vikram Nanda, 2004. "Family Values and the Star Phenomenon: Strategies of Mutual Fund Families," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 17(3), pages 667-698.
    35. Oleg Chuprinin & Massimo Massa & David Schumacher, 2015. "Outsourcing in the International Mutual Fund Industry: An Equilibrium View," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 70(5), pages 2275-2308, October.
    36. José‐Miguel Gaspar & Massimo Massa & Pedro Matos, 2006. "Favoritism in Mutual Fund Families? Evidence on Strategic Cross‐Fund Subsidization," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 61(1), pages 73-104, February.
    37. Lee, Charles M C, 1993. "Market Integration and Price Execution for NYSE-Listed Securities," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 48(3), pages 1009-1038, July.
    38. Hans Degryse & Frank de Jong & Vincent van Kervel, 2015. "The Impact of Dark Trading and Visible Fragmentation on Market Quality," Review of Finance, European Finance Association, vol. 19(4), pages 1587-1622.
    39. Youchang Wu & Russ Wermers & Josef Zechner, 2016. "Managerial Rents vs. Shareholder Value in Delegated Portfolio Management: The Case of Closed-End Funds," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 29(12), pages 3428-3470.
    40. Marianne Bertrand & Paras Mehta & Sendhil Mullainathan, 2002. "Ferreting out Tunneling: An Application to Indian Business Groups," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 117(1), pages 121-148.
    41. Frazzini, Andrea & Lamont, Owen A., 2008. "Dumb money: Mutual fund flows and the cross-section of stock returns," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 88(2), pages 299-322, May.
    42. Del Guercio, Diane & Genç, Egemen & Tran, Hai, 2018. "Playing favorites: Conflicts of interest in mutual fund management," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 128(3), pages 535-557.
    43. Vincent Van Kervel & Albert J. Menkveld, 2019. "High‐Frequency Trading around Large Institutional Orders," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 74(3), pages 1091-1137, June.
    44. Mark M. Carhart & Ron Kaniel & David K. Musto & Adam V. Reed, 2002. "Leaning for the Tape: Evidence of Gaming Behavior in Equity Mutual Funds," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 57(2), pages 661-693, April.
    45. Patrick E. McCabe, 2009. "The economics of the mutual fund trading scandal," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2009-06, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    46. Robert Kosowski, 2011. "Do Mutual Funds Perform When It Matters Most to Investors? US Mutual Fund Performance and Risk in Recessions and Expansions," Quarterly Journal of Finance (QJF), World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., vol. 1(03), pages 607-664.
    47. Carhart, Mark M, 1997. "On Persistence in Mutual Fund Performance," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 52(1), pages 57-82, March.
    48. Francesco A. Franzoni & Martin C. Schmalz, 2013. "Fund Flows and Market States," Swiss Finance Institute Research Paper Series 13-41, Swiss Finance Institute, revised Jun 2017.
    49. Anand, Amber & Irvine, Paul & Puckett, Andy & Venkataraman, Kumar, 2013. "Institutional trading and stock resiliency: Evidence from the 2007–2009 financial crisis," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 108(3), pages 773-797.
    50. Itzhak Ben-David & David Hirshleifer, 2012. "Are Investors Really Reluctant to Realize Their Losses? Trading Responses to Past Returns and the Disposition Effect," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 25(8), pages 2485-2532.
    51. Richard B. Evans, 2010. "Mutual Fund Incubation," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 65(4), pages 1581-1611, August.
    52. Dimmock, Stephen G. & Gerken, William C., 2012. "Predicting fraud by investment managers," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 105(1), pages 153-173.
    53. Casavecchia, Lorenzo & Tiwari, Ashish, 2016. "Cross trading by investment advisers: Implications for mutual fund performance," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 25(C), pages 99-130.
    54. Hu, Gang & Jo, Koren M. & Wang, Yi Alex & Xie, Jing, 2018. "Institutional trading and Abel Noser data," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 52(C), pages 143-167.
    55. Thomas J. Chemmanur & Gang Hu & Jiekun Huang, 2010. "The Role of Institutional Investors in Initial Public Offerings," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 23(12), pages 4496-4540, December.
    56. Joseph Chen & Harrison Hong & Ming Huang & Jeffrey D. Kubik, 2004. "Does Fund Size Erode Mutual Fund Performance? The Role of Liquidity and Organization," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 94(5), pages 1276-1302, December.
    57. Francesco Franzoni & Martin C. Schmalz, 2017. "Fund Flows and Market States," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 30(8), pages 2621-2673.
    58. Chemmanur, Thomas J. & He, Shan & Hu, Gang, 2009. "The role of institutional investors in seasoned equity offerings," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 94(3), pages 384-411, December.
    59. Fama, Eugene F. & French, Kenneth R., 1993. "Common risk factors in the returns on stocks and bonds," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(1), pages 3-56, February.
    60. Marcin Kacperczyk & Stijn Van Nieuwerburgh & Laura Veldkamp, 2016. "A Rational Theory of Mutual Funds' Attention Allocation," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 84, pages 571-626, March.
    61. Hendricks, Darryll & Patel, Jayendu & Zeckhauser, Richard, 1993. "Hot Hands in Mutual Funds: Short-Run Persistence of Relative Performance, 1974-1988," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 48(1), pages 93-130, March.
    62. Goncalves-Pinto, Luis & Sotes-Paladino, Juan & Xu, Jing, 2018. "The invisible hand of internal markets in mutual fund families," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 89(C), pages 105-124.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Bagattini, Giulio & Fecht, Falko & Maddaloni, Angela, 2023. "Liquidity support and distress resilience in bank-affiliated mutual funds," SAFE Working Paper Series 385, Leibniz Institute for Financial Research SAFE.
    2. Adams, John & Hayunga, Darren & Mansi, Sattar, 2022. "Index fund trading costs are inversely related to fund and family size," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 140(C).
    3. Nefedova, Tamara & Pratobevera, Giuseppe, 2020. "Do institutional investors play hide-and-sell in the IPO aftermarket?," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 64(C).
    4. Saengchote, Kanis & Sthienchoak, Jananya, 2020. "Strategic participation in IPOs by affiliated mutual funds: Thai evidence," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 63(C).
    5. Wang, Z. Jay & Yang, Jingyun, 2021. "Cross-trading and liquidity management: Evidence from municipal bond funds," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 67(C).
    6. Hu, Gang & Jo, Koren M. & Wang, Yi Alex & Xie, Jing, 2018. "Institutional trading and Abel Noser data," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 52(C), pages 143-167.
    7. Goncalves-Pinto, Luis & Sotes-Paladino, Juan & Xu, Jing, 2018. "The invisible hand of internal markets in mutual fund families," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 89(C), pages 105-124.
    8. Kräussl, Roman & Rinne, Kalle & Sunc, Huizhu, 2023. "Does family matter? Venture capital cross-fund cash flows," CFS Working Paper Series 695, Center for Financial Studies (CFS).

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Alexander Eisele & Tamara Nefedova & Gianpaolo Parise, 2015. "Are Star Funds Really Shining? Cross-trading And Performance Shifting In Mutual Fund Families," Post-Print hal-01458357, HAL.
    2. Dahm, Laura K. & Sorhage, Christoph, 2015. "Milk or wine: Mutual funds' (dis)economies of life," CFR Working Papers 15-05, University of Cologne, Centre for Financial Research (CFR).
    3. Luo, Mancy, 2017. "Essays in financial intermediation and political economy," Other publications TiSEM 146f40d3-6c89-4c6d-8fea-1, Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management.
    4. Cuthbertson, Keith & Nitzsche, Dirk & O'Sullivan, Niall, 2016. "A review of behavioural and management effects in mutual fund performance," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 44(C), pages 162-176.
    5. Hung, Pi-Hsia & Lien, Donald & Kuo, Ming-Sin, 2020. "Window dressing in equity mutual funds," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 78(C), pages 338-354.
    6. Jeffrey A. Busse & Tarun Chordia & Lei Jiang & Yuehua Tang, 2021. "Transaction Costs, Portfolio Characteristics, and Mutual Fund Performance," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 67(2), pages 1227-1248, February.
    7. Elton, Edwin J. & Gruber, Martin J., 2013. "Mutual Funds," Handbook of the Economics of Finance, in: G.M. Constantinides & M. Harris & R. M. Stulz (ed.), Handbook of the Economics of Finance, volume 2, chapter 0, pages 1011-1061, Elsevier.
    8. repec:dau:papers:123456789/15218 is not listed on IDEAS
    9. Servaes, Henri & Sigurdsson, Kari, 2022. "The Costs and Benefits of Performance Fees in Mutual Funds," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 50(C).
    10. Cici, Gjergji & Dahm, Laura K. & Kempf, Alexander, 2014. "Trading efficiency of fund families: Impact on fund performance and investment behavior," CFR Working Papers 14-14, University of Cologne, Centre for Financial Research (CFR).
    11. Clemens Sialm & T. Mandy Tham, 2016. "Spillover Effects in Mutual Fund Companies," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 62(5), pages 1472-1486, May.
    12. Ferson, Wayne E., 2013. "Investment Performance: A Review and Synthesis," Handbook of the Economics of Finance, in: G.M. Constantinides & M. Harris & R. M. Stulz (ed.), Handbook of the Economics of Finance, volume 2, chapter 0, pages 969-1010, Elsevier.
    13. Beggs, William & Hill-Kleespie, Austin & Liu, Yanguang, 2022. "Mutual fund tax implications when investment advisors manage tax-exempt separate accounts," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 134(C).
    14. Agarwal, Vikas & Zhao, Haibei, 2016. "Interfund lending in mutual fund families: Role of internal capital markets," CFR Working Papers 15-09 [rev.], University of Cologne, Centre for Financial Research (CFR).
    15. Rakowski, David & Yamani, Ehab, 2021. "Endogeneity in the mutual fund flow–performance relationship: An instrumental variables solution," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 64(C), pages 247-271.
    16. Brown, Stephen J. & Sotes-Paladino, Juan & Wang, Jiaguo(George) & Yao, Yaqiong, 2017. "Starting on the wrong foot: Seasonality in mutual fund performance," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 82(C), pages 133-150.
    17. Casavecchia, Lorenzo & Tiwari, Ashish, 2016. "Cross trading by investment advisers: Implications for mutual fund performance," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 25(C), pages 99-130.
    18. Teodor Dyakov & Marno Verbeek, 2019. "Can Mutual Fund Investors Distinguish Good from Bad Managers?," International Review of Finance, International Review of Finance Ltd., vol. 19(3), pages 505-540, September.
    19. Agarwal, Vikas & Zhao, Haibei, 2015. "Interfund lending in mutual fund families: Role of internal capital markets," CFR Working Papers 15-09, University of Cologne, Centre for Financial Research (CFR).
    20. Ibert, Markus, 2023. "What do mutual fund managers’ private portfolios tell us about their skills?," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 53(C).
    21. Martin Rohleder, 2015. "The Relation between Past Flows and Future Performance: Simple Investment Strategies in the Mutual Fund Sector," IJFS, MDPI, vol. 3(1), pages 1-28, February.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Mutual fund families; Cross-trades; Performance-shifting; Monitoring; Opaque trading;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • G11 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Portfolio Choice; Investment Decisions
    • G23 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Non-bank Financial Institutions; Financial Instruments; Institutional Investors

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:chf:rpseri:rp1319. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Ridima Mittal (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/fameech.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service. RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.