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Tourism overview: changing end markets and hyper competition


  • Michelle Christian
  • Dev Nathan


Abstract This overview of tourism research conducted by Capturing the Gains covers cases from Asia (China, Indonesia and India), and Africa (Kenya, South Africa and Uganda). The tourism value chain is outlined and changes in the relative roles of different agencies discussed. The paper analyses the changes in the composition of tourists in these countries and the resultant change in relative importance of national and international tour agencies. Our findings suggest that benefits from the growth of tourism are unevenly distributed, with the oligopolistic nature of the tour agencies and hyper-competition among service providers even resulting in some cases of below-cost provision of destination services. These commercial value chain dynamics have led to precarious employment arrangements. There is a synthesis of the nature of employment in tourism, with a large presence of own-account and other forms of informal employment. Ways of dealing with the oligopolistic buyers’ market are discussed, including branding and organization by destination service providers. Methods of improving the gains of women and other workers are also addressed, such as the role of workers’ organization and state-supported social security measures.

Suggested Citation

  • Michelle Christian & Dev Nathan, 2013. "Tourism overview: changing end markets and hyper competition," Brooks World Poverty Institute Working Paper Series ctg-2013-26, BWPI, The University of Manchester.
  • Handle: RePEc:bwp:bwppap:ctg-2013-26

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Loren Brandt & Eric Thun, 2011. "Going mobile in China: shifting value chains and upgrading in the mobile telecom sector," International Journal of Technological Learning, Innovation and Development, Inderscience Enterprises Ltd, vol. 4(1/2/3), pages 148-180.
    2. Jyrki Ali-Yrkkö & Petri Rouvinen & Timo Seppälä & Pekka Ylä-Anttila, 2011. "Who Captures Value in Global Supply Chains? Case Nokia N95 Smartphone," Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade, Springer, vol. 11(3), pages 263-278, September.
    3. Timothy J. Sturgeon & Momoko Kawakami, 2011. "Global value chains in the electronics industry: characteristics, crisis, and upgrading opportunities for firms from developing countries," International Journal of Technological Learning, Innovation and Development, Inderscience Enterprises Ltd, vol. 4(1/2/3), pages 120-147.
    4. Raphael Kaplinsky & Jeff Readman, 2005. "Globalization and upgrading: what can (and cannot) be learnt from international trade statistics in the wood furniture sector?," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 14(4), pages 679-703, August.
    5. Nonaka, Ikujiro & Nishiguchi, Toshihiro, 2001. "Knowledge Emergence: Social, Technical and Evolutionary Dimensions of Knowledge Creation," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780195130638, June.
    6. Dedrick, Jason & Kraemer, Kenneth L. & Linden, Greg, 2011. "The distribution of value in the mobile phone supply chain," Telecommunications Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(6), pages 505-521, July.
    7. Yuqing Xing & Neal Detert, 2010. "How the iPhone Widens the United States Trade Deficit with the People’s Republic of China," Trade Working Papers 23280, East Asian Bureau of Economic Research.
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