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Informational Efficiency under Short Sale Constraints

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  • Robert A. Jarrow
  • Martin Larsson

Abstract

A constrained informationally efficient market is defined to be one whose price process arises as the outcome of some equilibrium where agents face restrictions on trade. This paper investigates the case of short sale constraints, a setting which despite its simplicity, generates new insights. In particular, it is shown that short sale constrained informationally efficient markets always admit equivalent supermartingale measures and local martingale deflators, but not necessarily local martingale measures. And if in addition some local martingale deflator turns the price process into a true martingale, then the market is constrained informationally efficient. Examples are given to illustrate the subtle phenomena that can arise in the presence of short sale constraints, with particular attention to representative agent equilibria and the different notions of no arbitrage.

Suggested Citation

  • Robert A. Jarrow & Martin Larsson, 2014. "Informational Efficiency under Short Sale Constraints," Papers 1401.1851, arXiv.org.
  • Handle: RePEc:arx:papers:1401.1851
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    1. Robert C. Merton, 2005. "Theory of rational option pricing," World Scientific Book Chapters,in: Theory Of Valuation, chapter 8, pages 229-288 World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    2. Basak, Suleyman & Cuoco, Domenico, 1998. "An Equilibrium Model with Restricted Stock Market Participation," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 11(2), pages 309-341.
    3. David Hirshleifer, 2001. "Investor Psychology and Asset Pricing," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 56(4), pages 1533-1597, August.
    4. Hugonnier, Julien, 2012. "Rational asset pricing bubbles and portfolio constraints," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 147(6), pages 2260-2302.
    5. Alessandro Beber & Marco Pagano, 2013. "Short-Selling Bans Around the World: Evidence from the 2007–09 Crisis," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 68(1), pages 343-381, February.
    6. Gabriel Frahm, 2013. "Pricing and Valuation under the Real-World Measure," Papers 1304.3824, arXiv.org, revised Jan 2016.
    7. Ekkehart Boehmer & Charles M. Jones & Xiaoyan Zhang, 2013. "Shackling Short Sellers: The 2008 Shorting Ban," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 26(6), pages 1363-1400.
    8. Constantinides, George M, 1982. "Intertemporal Asset Pricing with Heterogeneous Consumers and without Demand Aggregation," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 55(2), pages 253-267, April.
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    Cited by:

    1. Robert A. Jarrow, 2015. "Asset Price Bubbles," Annual Review of Financial Economics, Annual Reviews, vol. 7(1), pages 201-218, December.
    2. repec:wsi:ijtafx:v:18:y:2015:i:01:n:s0219024915500053 is not listed on IDEAS

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