Rethinking Ecosystem Services from an Intermediate Product Perspective
The Earth's ecosystems provide myriad goods and services that are essential to human wellbeing. This paper offers a typology of ecosystem services that emphasizes the means by which humans experience the service rendered. The typology distinguishes between services that are directly experienced, and those that are indirect. The paper offers an illustration of how indirect services can be valued when they contributed to production of a marketed product. The intermediate product method described is amenable to indirect services that are one stage removed (Tier 2), two stages removed (Tier 3), or even farther removed from the direct services that humans experience. The intermediate product approach to ecosystem service valuation is illustrated by an example of biological pest management to support soybean food production.
|Date of creation:||2005|
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- Wilson, Matthew A. & Howarth, Richard B., 2002. "Discourse-based valuation of ecosystem services: establishing fair outcomes through group deliberation," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 41(3), pages 431-443, June.
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- Howarth, Richard B. & Farber, Stephen, 2002. "Accounting for the value of ecosystem services," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 41(3), pages 421-429, June.
- Barbier, Edward B., 2000. "Valuing the environment as input: review of applications to mangrove-fishery linkages," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 35(1), pages 47-61, October.
- Farber, Stephen C. & Costanza, Robert & Wilson, Matthew A., 2002. "Economic and ecological concepts for valuing ecosystem services," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 41(3), pages 375-392, June.
- de Groot, Rudolf S. & Wilson, Matthew A. & Boumans, Roelof M. J., 2002. "A typology for the classification, description and valuation of ecosystem functions, goods and services," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 41(3), pages 393-408, June.
- Beattie, Bruce R. & Thompson, C. Stassen & Boehlje, Michael, 1974. "Product Complementarity In Production: The By-Product Case," Southern Journal of Agricultural Economics, Southern Agricultural Economics Association, vol. 6(02), December.
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