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Proximity: Synthesis, Six-Dimensional Typology, and Significance for Cooperation Performance

In: Contemporary Challenges in Cooperation and Coopetition in the Age of Industry 4.0


  • Patrycja Klimas

    (Wroclaw University of Economics)


In recent years, the concept of proximity becomes more popular not only in the field of economic geography but—surprisingly—also in strategic management. The growing attention paid to the considerations about proximity stems from the fact that it may be perceived as a significant factor leveraging effectiveness and performance of both cooperating (or coopeting) organizations and inter-organizational networks. Therefore, this paper attempts to explore and synthesize prior literature on proximity and its dimensions. Nevertheless, the main aim is to develop a consistent, logical, theory-based multidimensional proximity framework applicable in any further research investigations undertaken within strategic management, especially those adopting the relational view on strategic advantage. Drawn from existing literature, this paper presents the significance of proximity for collaboration and networking and helps to understand the essence of its particular dimensions. By identifying and limiting the drawbacks of prior approaches to proximity, six—separate hence interrelated—dimensions of proximity are outlined and discussed, thus the holistic proximity framework is developed. The main contribution of this conceptual paper is development of six-dimensional proximity framework (including geographical, cognitive, organizational, social, institutional, and communicational proximities) truly removing substantial barriers for further exploration and exemplification of proximity concept.

Suggested Citation

  • Patrycja Klimas, 2020. "Proximity: Synthesis, Six-Dimensional Typology, and Significance for Cooperation Performance," Springer Proceedings in Business and Economics, in: Agnieszka Zakrzewska-Bielawska & Iwona Staniec (ed.), Contemporary Challenges in Cooperation and Coopetition in the Age of Industry 4.0, chapter 0, pages 243-272, Springer.
  • Handle: RePEc:spr:prbchp:978-3-030-30549-9_13
    DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-30549-9_13

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    Cited by:

    1. Ian Merrell & Frances Rowe & Paul Cowie & Menelaos Gkartzios, 2021. "‘Honey pot’ rural enterprise hubs as micro-clusters: Exploring their role in creativity-led rural development," Local Economy, London South Bank University, vol. 36(7-8), pages 589-605, November.
    2. Anna Maria Lis, 2020. "Development of proximity in cluster organizations," Entrepreneurship and Sustainability Issues, VsI Entrepreneurship and Sustainability Center, vol. 8(2), pages 116-132, December.


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