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Comparison and Analysis of Productivity Growth and R&D Investment in the Electrical Machinery Industries of the United States and Japan

In: Productivity Growth in Japan and the United States

  • M. Ishaq Nadiri
  • Ingmar R. Prucha

This paper presents a comparative analysis of productivity growth in the U.S. and Japanese electrical machinery industries in the postwar period. This industry has experienced rapid growth in output and productivity and high rates of capital formation in both countries. A substantial amount of R&D resources of the total manufacturing sectors in both countries is concentrated In the electrical machinery industry. Also, this industry has an active export orientation in both countries. The analysis of the paper is based on dynamic factor demand models describing the production structure and the behavior of factor inputs as well as the determinants of productivity growth in the U.S. and Japanese electrical machinery industry. The analysis shows that the production structure of the industry in both countries is characterized by increasing returns to scale; the factors of production do respond to changes in factor prices; and the existence of a pattern of substitution and complementarity among the inputs. The main sources of productivity growth are: growth in materials; technical change; and capital accumulation. R&D expenditures have also contributed significantly to growth of labor and productivity while the most important source of total factor productivity in this industry for both countries has been the scale effect followed by changes in technical progress.

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This chapter was published in:
  • Charles R. Hulten, 1991. "Productivity Growth in Japan and the United States," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number hult91-1, June.
  • This item is provided by National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc in its series NBER Chapters with number 8445.
    Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberch:8445
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    Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

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    1. Prucha, Ingmar R. & Nadiri, M. Ishaq, 1986. "A comparison of alternative methods for the estimation of dynamic factor demand models under non-static expectations," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 33(1-2), pages 187-211.
    2. Norsworthy, J R & Malmquist, David H, 1983. "Input Measurement and Productivity Growth in Japanese and U.S. Manufacturing," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 73(5), pages 947-67, December.
    3. Madan, Dilip B. & Prucha, Ingmar R., 1987. "A Note on the Estimation of Non-Symmetric Dynamic Factor Demand Models," Working Papers 87-25, C.V. Starr Center for Applied Economics, New York University.
    4. Epstein, Larry G. & Yatchew, Adonis J., 1985. "The empirical determination of technology and expectations : A simplified procedure," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 27(2), pages 235-258, February.
    5. Lau, Lawrence J., 1976. "A characterization of the normalized restricted profit function," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 12(1), pages 131-163, February.
    6. Morrison, C. J. & Berndt, E. R., 1981. "Short-run labor productivity in a dynamic model," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 16(3), pages 339-365, August.
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