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International R&D Spillovers Between U.S. and Japanese R&D Intensive Sectors

A great deal of empirical evidence shows that a country's production structure and productivity growth depend on its own R&D capital formation. With the growing role of international trade, foreign investment and international knowledge diffusion, domestic production and productivity also depend on the R&D activities of other countries. The purpose of this paper is to empirically investigate the bilateral link between the U.S. and Japanese economies in terms of how R&D capital formation in one country affects the production structure, physical and R&D capital accumulation, and productivity growth in the other country. We find that production processes become less labor intensive as international R&D spillovers grow. In the short-run, R&D intensity is complementary to the international spillover. This relationship persists in the long-run for the U.S., but the Japanese decrease their own R&D intensity. U.S. R&D capital accounts for 60% of Japanese total factor productivity growth, while Japanese R&D capital contributes 20% to U.S. productivity gains. International spillovers cause social rates of return to be about four times the private returns.

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Paper provided by Carleton University, Department of Economics in its series Carleton Industrial Organization Research Unit (CIORU) with number 94-04.

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Publication status: Published: "International R&D Spillovers Between U.S. and Japanese R&D Intensive Sectors", Journal of International Economics, Volume 44, April 1998, pp. 315-338.
Handle: RePEc:car:ciorup:94-04
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  1. Jeffrey Bernstein & Ishaq Nadiri, 1988. "Interindustry R&D Spillovers, Rates of Return, and Production in High-Tech Industries," Carleton Industrial Organization Research Unit (CIORU) 88-01, Carleton University, Department of Economics.
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  3. Diewert, Walter E & Wales, Terence J, 1987. "Flexible Functional Forms and Global Curvature Conditions," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 55(1), pages 43-68, January.
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  6. Morrison, Catherine J, 1992. "Unraveling the Productivity Growth Slowdown in the United States, Canada and Japan: The Effects of Subequilibrium, Scale Economies and Markups," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 74(3), pages 381-93, August.
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  8. M. Ishaq Nadiri, 1993. "Innovations and Technological Spillovers," NBER Working Papers 4423, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  9. Zvi Griliches, 1998. "Issues in Assessing the Contribution of Research and Development to Productivity Growth," NBER Chapters, in: R&D and Productivity: The Econometric Evidence, pages 17-45 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  10. Denny, Michael & Fuss, Melvyn, 1983. "The Use of Discrete Variables in Superlative Index Number Comparisons," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 24(2), pages 419-21, June.
  11. Epstein, Larry G. & Yatchew, Adonis J., 1985. "The empirical determination of technology and expectations : A simplified procedure," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 27(2), pages 235-258, February.
  12. Cohen, Wesley M. & Levin, Richard C., 1989. "Empirical studies of innovation and market structure," Handbook of Industrial Organization, in: R. Schmalensee & R. Willig (ed.), Handbook of Industrial Organization, edition 1, volume 2, chapter 18, pages 1059-1107 Elsevier.
  13. Mohnen, Pierre A. & Nadiri, M. Ishaq & Prucha, Ingmar R., 1986. "R&D, production structure and rates of return in the U.S., Japanese and German manufacturing sectors: A non-separable dynamic factor demand model," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 30(4), pages 749-771, August.
  14. Berndt, Ernst R. & Fuss, Melvyn A., 1986. "Productivity measurement with adjustments for variations in capacity utilization and other forms of temporary equilibrium," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 33(1-2), pages 7-29.
  15. Morrison, C. J. & Berndt, E. R., 1981. "Short-run labor productivity in a dynamic model," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 16(3), pages 339-365, August.
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